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Cholera investigation and prevention in Tajikistan

#T-2037


Cholera epidemiological surveillance, laboratory investigation, and measures on prevention of emergence and spread in Tajikistan

Tech Area / Field

  • BIO-SFS/Biosafety and BioSecurity/Biotechnology

Status
3 Approved without Funding

Registration date
18.09.2012

Leading Institute
Republican Center for Quarantine Infections' Prevention of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Tajikistan, Tajikistan, Dushanbe

Collaborators

  • University of Texas / Medical Branch / Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, USA, TX, Galveston

Project summary

Cholera sickness rate remains at high level in the world. Annually, at least more then 50 thousand cholera cases are registered in 98 countries.
According to the available literature data, until 1917 on the territory of Tajikistan cholera epidemics occurred in the end of the second epidemics and in the course of all subsequent epidemics.
During the epidemiologic season the Republican Center for Quarantine Infections’ Prevention of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Tajikistan has annually conducted laboratory test of opened reservoirs’ water on cholera causative agent for the last 15 years in Panj district and Dushanbe city
Thus in 1997, 2 Eltor cholera vibrio cultures of “Ogava” serovar were detected from the opened reservoirs’ water in Panj district. And the last time in this district, 3 cholera vibrio cultures were periodically detected from water of opened reservoirs as well as “nоn О1” cholera vibrios of sero-group both from Panj district and from Dushanbe city. This group of vibrio (nоn О1) presents maximum epidemiological interest minimally differing from cholera: they are in short titre nonagglutinating or agglutinating. Such vibrios are able to produce acute gastrointestinal diseases including the severe, similar to cholera. “Non 01” diarrhea was recorded from all the countries of the world like sporadic ones or outbreak group ones. They run like acute gastrointestinal disorders type with fecal-oral mechanism of causative agent transmission. Human infection occurs by different water consumptions of surface reservoirs infected by this microflora.
In the Republic of Tajikistan human infection of severe form of an acute gastrointestinal disease running similar to cholera was detected in 2005. Republican Center for Quarantine Infections’ Prevention examined 1875 people with severe enterocolitis diagnosis. But “01” cholera vibrio group and “non 01” cholera vibrio group were not identified. This all could be because of the lack of the laboratory provision of diagnosticums, qualitative nutritional mediums and modern equipment which allow conducting laboratory tests on cholera vibrio detection using modern laboratory test methods.
The main project goal is to reduce a risk of cholera diseases and AID (acute intestinal disease), and prevent epidemics by conducting of timely anti-epidemic measures in the territory of the Republic of Tajikistan.
The project tasks are:
1. Organization and conducting of the laboratory control of objects of external environment (water supply sources, opened reservoirs) on cholera vibrio presence.
2. Technical and institutional development of the Republican Center for Quarantine Infections’ Prevention.
3. Preparation and changing of the legal base on cholera in the Republic of Tajikistan.
4. Informing community about transmission ways, prophylaxis and measures on cholera entry prevention.
During the project implementation the next results will be reached:
- Regular examination of suspicious objects of external environment will give an opportunity to prevent a risk of disease emergence and spreading;
- Liquidation of risk of wrong diagnosis identification (by proper approach to laboratory cholera diagnosis and other intestinal infections);
- Prevention of beginning of cholera outbreaks in the territory of the Republic of Tajikistan and reduction of cholera spreading risk outside of Tajikistan through labor migration;
- Institutional and technical development of the Republican Center for Quarantine Infections’ Prevention for further scientific research implementation.


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