Bioprotection of Grain Cereals
Technology for Bioprotection of Grain Cereals Against Fusarium Rots with the Object to Get Ecologically Beneficial Production
Tech Area / Field
- AGR-PPR/Plant Protection/Agriculture
- BIO-CGM/Cytology, Genetics and Molecular Biology/Biotechnology
- BIO-IND/Industrial Biotechnology/Biotechnology
3 Approved without Funding
Research Center of Toxicology and Hygienic Regulation of Biopreparations, Russia, Moscow reg., Serpukhov
- Oregon State University, USA, OR, Corvallis
The objective of the project is development of the technology to prevent cereal crops from Fusarium rots employing soil indigenous microorganisms (and/or their metabolites) their toxicological, sanitary-and -hygienic assessment, and development of optimum conditions for their application.
Last two decades, diseases caused by the fungus Fusarium dramatically affect grain losses at harvest in developed countries. Such disease as Scab (head blight), Fusarium root rots, and Gibberella zeal are the most dangerous in many crop-cultivated regions. Their epithytoties take the chronic nature. The harmfulness of scab, for instance, is estimated by to the loss of 20-50% of wheat yield, contaminating the grain by Fusarium toxins (FT), such as DON (deoxynivalenol), zearalenon, T-2 and their derivatives. The contaminated grain become unfit for human food and animal feed. Chemical controls to suppress Fusarium rots are not in common use, because they are low effective, or their application is restricted (by time) by sanitary-and-hygienic standards. At the same time, the performers of the project have positive experience in employing microbes both for suppression of phytopathogenes of Fusarium species and to minimize FT accumulation in grain. Thus, under small-scale field trials, the inoculation of barley grain with the spore suspension of avirulent strain Fusarium sp. (AF-967) reduced the Fusarium and other root rots damage of the plants by 50-60%. Both this and a number of other microbial means are supposed to reduce considerably, a harmfulness of Fusarium rots for wheat and barley.
Under the project fulfilment it is suggested to exploit the methodology being already in service, as well as to employ currently available methods.
Under the project implementation it is intended to solve the following tasks:
— to study trophic demands and physiological features of avirulent fungus-antagonist Fusarium sp. (AF-967) on different nutrient media;
— to study the interaction of virulent Fusarium spp. with differing in resistance the wheat varieties cells (tissues) with and without Fusarium spp. AF-967 and other strains of Fusarium fungi-antagonists;
— to chose optimum cultivation conditions providing maximum stable inoculum yield of the most efficient phytopathogen strain-antagonist;
— to conduct toxicological-and-hygienic assessment of the most efficient revealed fungi-antagonists of Fusarium root rots;
— to determine optimum conditions for application of microbial means, which provide maximum protection of grain cereals against Fusarium infection and minimum accumulation of fusariotoxins for the yield storage;
— to prepare scientific-and-practical recommendations on the laboratory screening, production, and technology for application of efficient microbial antagonists of phytopathogenic Fusarium species to protect grain crops.
During the first year it is planned to conduct field and laboratory trials in Nechernozemnaya zone of the European part of Russia (Moscow region) under dry climatic conditions. During the second year the analogous trials will be conducted in the wheat-producing zone of the Southern Russia (the Northern Caucasus region).
As a result, the research implementation could contribute to biologization of grain crops defence from Fusarium rots, that is the burning problem in agriculture. It would preserve the crops yield taking advantage of ecologically low-hazard avirulent microbial means, which have a pronounced toxinoinhibiting effect on phytopathogens and offer immunoinducing effect to the cereals.
The research personnel engaged to the execution of the given project consist of microbiologists, toxicologists, biochemists, phytopathologists, and agronomists. They have a considerable experience of the collaborative work in terms of creation of different biological and chemical means for plant protection against harmful organisms.
The results of these investigations will help to work out the scientific-and-practical recommendations on the screening, production and use of fungi-antagonists to prevent cereal crops from Fusarium rots; it will be discovered the commercial micromycete strain, an active agent for microbiological formulation prevented cereal crops from various fungous infections, safe for human.
The foreign collaborators could take part in the project as follows:
— Informational support of the project, set up of the data-base, preparation of the joint analytic views for publishing in Russian and in English;
— Seminars concerning the discussion of the results of different terminated items of the project;
— Joint additional field experiments (for example, with the use of irrigation) to assess the most effective micro-bio-means under the USA conditions;
— Reviewing papers for publications and recommendations to be released.
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