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Portable Electroencephalograph in New Diagnostic Method

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Development of Electroencephalografy (EEG) Technology of Early Diagnostics of Nervous-Mental Diseases (NMD), which is Based on the Method of Spatial Synchronization of the Cerebrum Brain Electric Processes (SYNCRO-EEG); the Method is Implemented by the Po

Tech Area / Field

  • BIO-SFS/Biosafety and BioSecurity/Biotechnology

Status
3 Approved without Funding

Registration date
14.10.2002

Leading Institute
All-Russian Research Institute of Automatics, Russia, Moscow

Collaborators

  • Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, USA, WA, Richland

Project summary

The aim of the project is to develop early diagnostics technology of the nervous/mental diseases (NMD) on the basis of the method of spatial synchronization of the cerebrum brain electric processes - "SYNHCRO-EEG" that is implemented by the hardware-software system "SIT-EEG".

Last time the number of stress situations, at which not only separate persons but stratums and even some countries occur, has increased due to increasing strength in the economic, social and politic life, that has covered all countries of the world, and also due to sharp growth of terroristic actions. So, probability of NMD appearance due to the above increases.

In Russia, the nervous and mental states of the people who have occurred in natural catastrophe and military action regions (both civilians and the military, for instance, in Chechnya) as well as people suffered as a result of terroristic acts or accidents result in the particular worry.

Against the background of the above-described facts, the more severe requirements for the nervous and mental state (NMS) of specialists engaged in modern technologies with high potential hazard (for instance, for NPP operators and the nuclear weapon complex, etc.) have been imposed.

From the above it is evident that development of the early diagnostics technology of NMD is the actual and important problem for modern medicine. As a result of solution of this problem under this proposed project, the technology shall be developed including:

– early diagnostics of different mental diseases and functional disturbance of the central nervous system (CNS);


– monitoring of patients in the state of coma and during operations;
– determination of narcotic and alcohol dependence at its early stages;
– prophylactic screening choices and examinations of potential hazardous profession personnel (for instance, NPP operators), including on duty.

This technology shall produce more effective diagnostics of the following:

– coarse organic cerebral affection;


– small disturbances in mental-emotional and intellect spheres;
– changes in the state (with different genesis) of consciousness.

EEG-methods of estimation of the functional state of the brain, that are based on the standard approach to analysis and interpretation of electroencephalograms, and used for more than 50 years, do not make it possible to estimate small changes in the nervous and mental processes. But such estimation of the ones is of importance for identifying nervous boundary states of the man 's consciousness, carrying out professional selection, and examining the behavior of the nervous functions of a person, such as thinking and consciousness. For those reasons, it is necessary to develop new EEG-technologies based on use of original hypothesis and concepts of genesis and organization of the brain electric processes.

Last years VNIIA together with the leading specialists of the Institute of Higher Nervous Activities and Neurophysiology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IHNA&NPh, RAS) have succeeded in this direction – development of devices and methods laying in the basis of the NMD early diagnostics technology.

Engineering activities of VNIIA specialists and IHNA&NPh scientists have resulted in developing the "SYNCHRO-EEG" method and designing the hardware-software system "SIT-EEG" implementing this method. SYNCHRO-EEG is intended to estimate the functional state of the brain. It is based on the concepts of spatial synchronization of the electric processes and coherence structures of the brain electric activity.

Russian scientists, academician M.N. Livanov and professor N.Eu. Sviderskaya (IHNA&NPh, RAS) have developed this EEG-method.

SYNCHRO-EEG differs from existing similar methods in much larger information, so it estimates timing and spectral-coherent characteristics of an encephalogram not in 5 ranges, but in 22 narrow frequency subranges with the frequency of 1.31 Hz. Those subranges are specified by the parameters of coherence structures –resonance spatial-frequency cerebral formations having high dynamic characteristics according to nervous-mental processes. Their spatial superposition lays in the basis of generating higher activity focuses which are interactive centers collecting, processing and analyzing coming signals.

SYNCHRO-EEG is implemented by the hardware-software system "SIT-EEG".

SIT-EEG consists of the following:

– the measuring and transmitting unit designed as a 24 built-in electrode bundling helmet, that is put on the patient's head;


– the telemetering communication channel providing wireless transmission of signals to PC;
– special software processing the signals and displaying the results on the PC monitor.

From the results of approbation of the experimental sample of the SIT-EEG in Moscow hospital #17, there is the report, which particularly specifies that SIT-EEG makes it possible to define important features of pathologies and to significantly extend representations about the following:

– organization of the cerebral bioelectric processes in the state of coma, anesthesiology, etc.;


– response on pain factor;
– effects of some psychopharmacological means;
– difference between endogenetic and exogenetic-organic processes;
– peculiarities of pathological transformations under phenomena of pathological volition to narcotics;
– emotional responses, etc.

According to reference #200 of September 13, 2001 received from the Federal Center of Extreme Medicine - "SIT-EEG contains latest scientific and engineering achievements in the area of medical instrumentation, and its technical-operational decisions haven't got any analogs among domestic and foreign similar equipment of the same class; it has numerous advantages in practical use; it makes it possible to solve the complete of psychophysiological, social-psychological and economic problems of the modern community".

However, for actually putting the SYNCHRO-SIT-EEG technology into practical medicine, in particular, and implementing it in the medical establishments of Minatom, MoD for diagnostics of possible pathologies of personnel, it is necessary to upgrade engineering and design decisions of the SIT-EEG, to develop additional software which can allow applications of this technology in such areas of medicine as intensive therapy, anesthesiology, etc.

To achieve the objectives of the project, it is necessary:

– to improve engineering and design decisions of MTU to increase its operational interference immunity, stability and reliability;


– to improve the telemetering communication channel with higher interference immunity;
– to develop the optimal design of the SIT-EEG helmet in order to optimally place the electrodes, to measure and transfer the signals, and also to provide its minimal weight and dimensions;
– to manufacture a laboratory sample of the SYNCHRO-SIT-EEG on the basis of improved engineering and design decisions;
– to develop and manufacture a prototype of the SYNCHRO-SIT-EEG with appropriate documentation;
– to develop software for implementing the following diagnostic techniques:
– improvement of defining quantitative criteria of narcotic and alcohol dependence at the early stages of diseases;
– definition of an alarm level at the pre-clinical stages of nervous and psychosomatic diseases;
– EEG-discrimination of some psychotropic preparations;
– definition of changes in the states of consciousness at different models: coma, hypnosis, etc;
– to improve fabricability of the "SIT-EEG" for pilot and lot production;
– to develop appropriate technical and operational documentation;
– to carry out approbation of SYNCHRO-SIT-EEG in real conditions, for instance, in any Moscow hospital;
– to perform demonstration of SYNHCRO-SIT-EEG and produce recommendations on implementation of the SYNCHRO-SIT-EEG technology in different areas of medicine (anesthesiology, intensive therapy, prophylactic examinations, etc.).

To realize the project, the VNIIA high experienced experts engaged in developing nuclear weapons, nuclear warhead test systems, etc, as well as IHNA&NPh scientists, in particular, Dr (Med), professor N.Eu. Sviderskaya, are attracted to perform activities under the project. The project realizes the studies in the fields of medicine and professional equipment. Some technical decisions and medical methods are protected by patents, and reflected in many science papers.

Expected project results are the following.

A category of the proposed project is development of a technology. It is suggested that the following main results be achieved under the project.

1. Optimal diagnostic techniques shall be developed:

– definition of quantitative criteria of the narcotic and alcohol dependence at early stages of the diseases;


– definition of a alarm level at the pre-clinical stages of nervous and psychosomatic diseases;
– definition of the changed states of consciousness at different models: coma, hypnosis, etc.;
– EEG-discrimination of some psychoactive drugs.

2. A prototype of the upgraded hardware-software system (HSS) shall be developed and designed, namely:

– the portable (minimal weight and dimensions) MTU with the telemetering communication, providing steady, jam-protected and wireless transmission of the signals to PC;


– special software supporting the above diagnostic techniques;
– technical and operational documentation.

3. Performance check of the "SYNCHRO-SIT-EEG" technology in real conditions, for instance, in any Moscow hospital, shall be carried out.

4. Demonstration of the "SYNCHRO-SIT-EEG" technology shall be carried out, and recommendations on its use shall be proposed.

An addition, the "SYNCHRO-SIT-EEG" technology will possesses the following features:

– objective visual information about the state of the brain;


– patient/physician telemetering connection providing remote diagnostics;
– decrease of psychological effects of the physician on the patient's state;
– possible definition of early stages of diseases and, in turn, prevention of those neglected cases;
– good layout and visual; clearness of the results for medical personnel who do not specializes in the field of psychoneurology;
– electric safety on account of self-contained power supply;
– possible use in unshielded rooms.

Cooperation with the foreign collaborators are as follows.

It is suggested that the work be carried out under «ISTC Common Programs». Under VNIIA/ foreign collaborators cooperation the following activities will be performed:

– continuous technical exchange on the content of the project;


– agreement of the requirements for electroencephalograph systems being developed;
– mutual participation in topic workshops, system demonstrations;
– discussions of preliminary, interim and final results as well as problems associated with putting the project's results into operation.

Also, it is suggested that mutual participation in international take place.

Implementation of the project corresponds to the aims of ISTC in terms of extension of the

VNIIA conversion activity areas and will assist in early defining nervous and mental pathologies, that will be able to prevent the neglected cases resulted in incidents, accidents, inadequacy of reactions and criminal repercussion.

The SYNCHRO-SIT-EEG technology shall provide proper monitoring the mental state of specialists whose professional duties are connected with high responsibilities and risks for not only themselves, but for people not involved in the hazardous activities, environment as well. The above everything may give economic and social benefit which is difficult to overestimate.


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