Generation of Novel Nanostructured Materials Based on Al and Fe Nanopowders and Study of their Properties
Tech Area / Field
- MAT-ALL/High Performance Metals and Alloys/Materials
3 Approved without Funding
VNIITF, Russia, Chelyabinsk reg., Snezhinsk
- Tomsk Polytechnical University / Scientific Research Institute of High Voltage, Russia, Tomsk reg., Tomsk
- Centre National des Risques Industries, France, Bourges\nLos-Alamos National Laboratory / Weapons Experiments Division, USA, NM, Los-Alamos\nSNPE Matériaux Energétiques, France, Paris
Project summaryLast years mineral resources have been noticeably depleted for nickel, copper, zinc and other metals. Intensive mining is carried out more and more in severe conditions in more depleted fields. Intensive development of techniques and technologies, an industrial scale production of transport technique, high rise construction led to a high increase of ore extraction. For most metals, mineral resources are close to depletion. At the same time, it is unlikely that polymer and ceramic materials will completely replace metals and alloys. The limiting temperature at which polymers can be exploited is 350-400°C, whereas ceramic materials have no appropriate plasticity and shock strength. The problem of production and study of iron and aluminum alloys as the most common elements in the Earth’s crust is therefore important today. According to publications of leading world companies (Sumitomo, Tektronix, Hyundai, The Great Wall), acquirement of fabrication technologies of iron-aluminum alloys is now an important problem of material sciences. Previous attempts to obtain construction materials based on these metals did not give positive results: brittle intermetallides Fe2Al5, FeAl4 were formed during heating a mixture of industrial powders.
Features of nano-sized (ultra-dispersed) powders produced by electrical explosion of wires (EEW) are the high specific surface area and the high reactivity of the particles. Therefore, fabrication of new materials becomes possible due to compaction of nanosized powders of different metals, so-called intermetallides.
The following features of fabrication processes are essential for fabrication of intermetallides:
- Size of dispersed particles;
- Component composition of metals;
- Possibility to apply new compaction techniques (shock wave and magneto-impulse compaction), as well as electro-sintering and isostatic pressing of material mixtures;
- Possibility to obtain compounds not obtainable with usual technologies (fusion).
The indicated features give grounds to consider that materials obtained from nanopowders will differ from normal alloys because the use of compaction with shock waves or sintering under microsecond currents allows production of a material from non-equilibrium states. In this case, the pressure is increased for microseconds or microsecond parts, whereas the material cooling after the pulsed current sintering can reach 106 degree per second. The lowest size nanopowder production, elaboration of fabrication and electrosintering technologies of new materials, study of static and dynamic properties of these materials are therefore of particular interest.
The present project is aimed to use accumulated experience in manufacturing nanosized powders (HVRI) and creating impulse pressures and electrical currents (RFNC–VNIITF) in order to study possibilities for obtaining novel nanostructured materials (based on Al and Fe nanopowders) with improved plasticity and mechanical properties).
In this connection, the purpose of this project is:
To study possibilities for obtaining novel nanostructured materials (based on Al and Fe nanopowders) with improved mechanical properties (plasticity and strength properties).
The research chain and distribution of works between institutes are shown in Fig. 1.
During several iterations, a composition of the alloy and a technology of its fabrication will be selected. Recommendations for the practical use of alloys will be done.
In the RFNC–VNIITF and HVRI there are favorable conditions for accomplishing this project. Experimental works will be carried our in the laboratories where there is infrastructure for producing nanomaterials, their compaction and study of condensed media properties. In RFNC–VNIITF, there is developed infrastructure and long-year experience of researches on shock-wave loading.
In HVRI at TPU, unique equipment has been developed for three tens of years, and an experimental production of nanopowders was created. HVRI’s researchers defended more than 10 PhD theses on development of nanopowders technology and the study of their properties.
The elaborated approach and experimental results will be a base for further development of the fabrication technology of iron and aluminum based alloys. That will be accumulation of experimental knowledge about physicomechanical properties of different metal alloys, development of physical models of recrystallization and diffusion mixing of metals in the nanostate.
The project completely satisfies the aims and tasks of the ISTC. This allows weapon specialists and researchers to be reoriented towards the non-military activity and will promote their integration in the international scientific community
The International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) is an intergovernmental organization connecting scientists from Kazakhstan, Armenia, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Georgia with their peers and research organizations in the EU, Japan, Republic of Korea, Norway and the United States.
ISTC facilitates international science projects and assists the global scientific and business community to source and engage with CIS and Georgian institutes that develop or possess an excellence of scientific know-how.