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Dog Helminthiases in Armenia

#A-1716


The Problem of Dog Helminthiases and Development of Preventive Measures in Armenia as an Example

Tech Area / Field

  • BIO-OTH/Other/Biotechnology
  • AGR-VTH/Vaccines and Theraupetics/Agriculture

Status
3 Approved without Funding

Registration date
20.01.2009

Leading Institute
Armenian State Agrarian University, Armenia, Yerevan

Collaborators

  • Universitat Autonoma de Barselona / Department of Animal Health and Anatomy, Spain, Barselona\nUniversity of Thessaloniki / Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Greece, Thessaloniki

Project summary

According to World Health Organization (WHO), more than 16 million death cases from about 50 million cases annually are results of infectious and parasitic diseases. According to World Bank, economic damage from intestinal helminthiases, which are the most frequent parasitic diseases, is the fourth among the expenses for treatment of all the cases of diseases and traumas.

Numerous studies of the dog helminthiases have been conducted in different countries. Nevertheless, the single approach to prevention of this group of diseases has not been developed yet. At the same time dogs capita rises from year to year. According to annual research carried by Pet Food Institute (PFI), dogs and cats capita in USA in 2006 rose significantly and was equal to 147.5 million; the cat capita reached its maximal level and became about 81.8 million, and dog capita – 65.7 million. It has been found out that about 55% of American families have a dog or a cat, at the same time about 15% of families keep both dog and cat. Cat-keepers, as a rule, have more than one animal, while dog-keepers are satisfied with one pet.

Dog capita in the UK is about 5.6 million. Dogs are kept by 30% of families in the USA and France, 25% of families in the UK, 13% - in Japan, and 11% - in Switzerland. As for All-Russian Kinological Federation, about 1 million genuine dogs are registered in Moscow, and about 5 million are in Russia. Almost 30 million dogs are totally registered in Russia.

Data about dog capita in Republic of Armenia are absent. Nevertheless, according to our observations, quantity of dogs, especially strays, rises abruptly from year to year.

It is necessary to note that worm presence in adult dogs is not apparent, while in puppies they result in lethal outcome. Puppies are infested by worms in fetal period, and total length of worms exceeds the animal body length as much as 10 times in 3 to 5 week-old puppies.

Under such conditions, when large amount of dogs and cats, namely strays are present, the problem of environment pollution by their faeces becomes the more actual. Researches carried in various countries show the significant soil contamination by helminthes eggs (up to 60%) in the inhabited localities.

Many pet owners say: “My dog is clear, well-cared, it lives with me and even sleeps in my bed and eats from my plate”. But really, as for different studies, up to 80% of domestic dogs are infested by helminthes. Worms significantly damages dogs health, they are the most dangerous for puppies and young dogs during their active growth and development, as well as for weak animals.

The most actual issue reported at recent scientific conferences on parasitology is a prevalence of toxocariasis in people due to rise of capita of domestic dogs infested from stray animals, whose quantity rises too.

For example, research results show that places most contaminated by helminthes eggs are near the garbage containers, yards, sand-boxes at kinder-gardens, markets, veterinary hospitals, house cellars. The eggs of helminthes of zoonotic significance, e.g. Echinococcus and Toxocara, are detected almost in all the examined objects, and soil is contaminated round a year, but the most intensively in spring and autumn.

Eggs of Fasciola, Dicrocoelium, Moniezia, Strongylata, Taeniidae, Ascaris, Enterobius, Taeniarhynchus, Dipylidium have been detected at butcheries. So the places of closed contact of children and adults with environment are extremely unfavourable objects in sanitary and helminthological aspects, and intensively contaminated by the eggs of helminthes of carnivorous animals and humans.

The main helminthes of dogs, including dangerous for man, are defined in Europe, USA and Canada, while such research has not been carried in Armenia.

32 of 82 species of dogs helminthes registered in Russia can be parasites of man. According to results of different researches, toxocariasis, dipylidiasis, toxascariasis, and uncinariasis are dominant helminthiases in Russia. 3 species of the agents of above-mentioned helminthes are seriously dangerous not only for specific host (dog), but also for humans.

The purpose of this Project is studying of prevalence of dog helminthiases in various natural and geographical areas of Armenia, to estimate the possibility of man infestation directly from animals, and through the environment objects, as well as to develop new scientifically substantiated approaches to prevention of the mentioned diseases.


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