Sources of Seismic and Oceanic Disturbances
The Development and Investigation of the Effectiveness of Remote Methods for Determination of Parameters of Seismic and Oceanic Disturbances
Tech Area / Field
- ENV-SEM/Seismic Monitoring/Environment
- INF-COM/High Performance Computing and Networking/Information and Communications
3 Approved without Funding
VNIIEF, Russia, N. Novgorod reg., Sarov
- Russian Academy of Sciences / Institute of Applied Physics, Russia, N. Novgorod reg., N. Novgorod\nInstitute of Mathematics, Russia, Novosibirsk reg., Novosibirsk
- Sungkyunkwan University / School of Architecture, Landscape Architecture and Civil Engineering, Korea, Suwon\nUS Department of Commerce / National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration / Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, USA, WA, Seattle\nUniversity of Tokyo / Graduate School of Mathematical Sciences, Japan, Tokyo\nCNRS / Institut de Recherche sur les Phenomenes Hors Equilibre, France, Marseille\nUniversite des Antilles et de la Guyane, France, Pointe-a-Pitre
Project summaryThe goal of the project is development and investigation of the effectiveness of remote methods for determination of parameters of seismic and oceanic disturbances.
Defining of the source parameters based on the data of the remote monitoring is related to the area of so-called inverse problems of mathematical physics. As a role, these problems are mathematically ill-posed, that causes essential difficulties when they are investigated theoretically and numerically. The project is directed to the development of physical and mathematical approaches to solve the inverse problem of regaining of the parameters of spatially distributed wave disturbances sources in different mediums. Based on these approaches, a technology of defining of the key parameters of such sources will be developed and approved, and numerical codes will be created to solve some specific problems.
The most important applied trends of the project are:
– location and estimation of the parameters of natural and man-caused seismic disturbances sources;
– location and estimation of the parameters of the tsunami center in the ocean according to the deep-water depth sensors data, and estimation of the “tsunami-risk” during the under-water volcanoes eruption;
– regaining of the spatial distribution of the wind roughness in the ocean and diagnostics of the large-scale wave disturbances, such as high tides, “tsunami” and “killer-waves”;
– optimization of the measuring system according to the location and amount of the measuring sensors to provide given accuracy and reliability of defining of measured disturbances source parameters.
The inverse problems arise often in the sciences of Earth  and are widely used, for example, in different branches of geophysics. In the field of the theory and basis of the effective numerical algorithms construction methods to solve the inverse problems, the leading role belongs to Russian scientists, see, for example, monographs [2-5] and review .
There are a lot of formulations of the inverse problems to:
– define the parameters of the disturbances sources under the earthquake (location, capacity, properties of the medium of spreading) according to the data of seismic measurements;
– investigate the structure of stars according to the registered radio and X-ray radiations in astrophysics;
– register the distribution of isotopes concentration in the patient's organs according to the irradiation parameters on the tomograph sensors system in medicine.
Concerning to the goals of the project let us review in more details the problem of the earthquakes (see [1, 7-9]). The base earthquake characteristic is a magnitude – a value, which represents the energetic characteristics of the earthquake in the epicenter. It is enough to know time of the seismic waves arrival to determine the coordinates of the epicenter, but the amplitude of the waves should be known to determine the magnitude. Some methods were developed to define the magnitude, but there are unresolved problems as well. The moving of the matter in the center is a very complex process and it is not described by one magnitude. There are different models of this process, and their adequacy to the reality is one of the basic questions of seismology. The determining of some additional parameters of the center according to the measurements at the seismic stations could play an important role in such problems as, for example, protection of a territory from catastrophic waves “tsunami”. There are a lot of results in this area, but we are still far away from the complete understanding. In particular, location and distribution of the ocean floor displacements in the central area are determinative for the dynamics of the waves “tsunami”. These parameters are necessary to be determined according to the measurements in some receivers.
The problems mentioned above could be united, because all of them could be described with the help of equations or systems of equations of hyperbolic type. In this case the source is simulated by heterogeneity in the right part of the equation (system of equations). The experience of the project participants in the field of geophysics and oceanology investigations shows that, depending on the specific statement, it is advisable to choose the functions of special types to represent the source. It allows to simplify the theoretical and numerical investigation of the problem under the invariance of the model predictive efficiency.
In the same time the experience of solving of the applied problems for the needs of geophysics exploration and protection from the ocean natural disasters shows, that each of them has a pronounced specific character, associated with the peculiarities of generation, propagation and detecting of the medium disturbances signals. Simple carrying over of methodologies, worked out for the specific problem, to other areas results in ineffective resolving (by accuracy of the results and cost of their obtaining) of the given problem at the best.
It means that solving of each new applied problem demands:
– preliminary theoretical investigation and adaptation of the known methods of the inverse problem solving (or working out of new ones);
– working out of effective algorithms of numerical processing of the observed data and graduation of a software according to the synthetic and real data;
– application of new obtained knowledge to create object-oriented bursts of software.
Therefore, in spite of the experience, accumulated by the developers, in the field of the theory and application of the inverse problems, the whole spectrum of analytical, numerical and experimental investigations is scheduled in the framework of the project. These investigations will allow:
– to work out the methods of experimental simulation of the seismic disturbances sources and testing of seismic monitoring systems;
– to work out the principles of adaptation of the active monitoring systems for localized sources of the seismic disturbances in a randomly inhomogeneous medium;
– to develop mathematical methods and numerical algorithms to determine the source parameters with reference to the specific conditions of an excitation, spreading and signals recording (concentrated and distributed sources, one- and multi-dimensional models, known and unknown parameters of the medium);
– to create specific software packages to regain the parameters of seismic and oceanic disturbances sources;
– to work out acoustic methods of tomographic regaining of the ocean large-scale disturbances (“tsunami” and flood tides);
– to formulate recommendations for creating of the monitoring systems for the natural and man-caused seismic and oceanic disturbances.
The principal elements of a novelty of the proposed investigations are:
– the usage of analytical researches to investigate properties of the numerical algorithms and to obtain estimations of their mistakes in the interesting area of the parameter changing;
– the usage of semi-analytical methods to create effective numerical codes;
– the determining and usage of analytical dependencies between the characteristics of the problems;
– the realization of the comprehensive algorithms optimization on the base of both conventional methods of mathematical physics and neuronet technologies.
The participants of the project are a highly skilled team of specialists in the area of the proposed investigations:
1. IM SD RAS is one of the leading institutions in the world in the area of the inverse and ill-posed problems theory in mathematical physics, including questions of the disturbances sources parameters determining [2-9].
2. RFNC-VNIIEF is one of the leading institutions in the world in the area of investigation of the fast wave and explosive processes. Specialists of RFNC-VNIIEF have proposed and developed highly synchronized explosive sources and systems, based on these sources. These systems allow to simulate by experiment the geophysics disturbances conditions of different influence intensity and duration, and to investigate the peculiarities of their propagation [10, 11].
3. IAP RAS is one of the leading institutions in the world in the area of nonlinear dynamics of the wave processes in different mediums, particularly, as applied to the investigation of large-scale wave processes and natural hazards in an ocean (“tsunami”, flood tides, and intensive internal waves). Furthermore, during some years specialists of IAP RAS are developing the methods of active acoustic sounding and monitoring of the ocean [12-29].
Integration of the specialists of three leading scientific centers in the area of the proposed investigations forms a unique team, which is able to solve the problems, stated in the project. Scientific supervision of the project by M.M.Lavrent’ev, academician of RAS will provide high scientific level of working on the project.
The urgency of the proposed investigations is confirmed by a great amount of the articles, published in different domestic and foreign periodicals in last years, and also by special sections on different conferences. Similar investigations are carried out in many scientific centers in the world, in particular, by Prof. M. Yamamoto in the University of Tokyo (Japan), by Prof. A. Tani in the Keio University (Japan), by Prof. A.Lourency in Milan University (Italy), by Dr. John J. Zucca in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (USA), by Prof. Byung Ho Choi in Sungkyunkwan University (Korea). One of the leading institutions in this area is Center of the Earth’s Interior Representation, University of Colorado, Physical faculty (Bolder, USA).The project authors have began scientific collaboration with research group from this Center, which is headed by the specialist in the area of the seismic regaining of perturbation sources, Dr. A.Levshin. Such collaboration is able to serve as a base of permanent co-operation of RFNC-VNIIEF, IM SD RAS and IAP RAS with mentioned above institutions. Moreover, the project content has been highly appreciated by known specialists in the world, academician V.I.Keilis-Borok (Director of International Institute of the Earthquake Prediction Theory and Mathematical Geophysics, RAS).
The project participants hope that the possibility of practical realization of developed methods could attract new partners, also.
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