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Insensitive to Magnetic Fields Picosecond Photomultipliers


Development of Single and Multi-Channel Picosecond Magneto-Stable (up to 10 Tesla) Photomultipliers

Tech Area / Field

  • INF-ELE/Microelectronics and Optoelectronics/Information and Communications
  • INS-DET/Detection Devices/Instrumentation

3 Approved without Funding

Registration date

Leading Institute
NIIIT (Pulse Techniques), Russia, Moscow

Supporting institutes

  • Electro-Lampovii Zavod, Russia, Moscow\nInstitute for High Energy Physics (IHEP), Russia, Moscow reg., Protvino


  • Fermilab (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory), USA, IL, Batavia

Project summary

Now scientific questions on creation of a thermonuclear reactor are practically solved, the performance of engineering tasks is in the foreground. On the agenda - construction of the first pilot thermonuclear stations under the project ITER (the international thermonuclear experimental reactor) in which vacuum chamber, 14 meters high, a powerful plasma confining magnetic field is created. The pilot thermonuclear stations will allow to accumulate necessary results for designing stations producing the commercial electric power.

Thermonuclear technologies, technologies of plasma management is a solution to the engineering tasks focused on creation of industrial thermonuclear station. Thus reliable means of diagnostics with the high time resolution, capable to work in powerful magnetic fields are required. A necessary element of such diagnostic systems are special photo-electronic multipliers (PMT) with the time resolution of a picosecond range. Creation of such PMT is extremely actual for experiments in the field of high energies in physics especially for experiments on modern accelerators - colliders.

Known photomultipliers based on multiplying systems such as « the metal channel » keep serviceability in magnetic fields of no more than 100 Gs, and multichannel photomultipliers with multiplying systems on fine-structure grids (on fine meshes) – in magnetic fields of no more than 1-2 T.

The purpose of the project is creation of experimental prototypes of PM capable to ensure the operation of detectors in magnetic fields up to 10 T with time resolution of less than 50 ps on a single-photoelectron level (on a level of the single electron response).

Necessary characteristics of photoreceivers are expected to be achieved first of all as a result of application of multiplying systems with thin-film bialkaline or multialkaline emitters operating in the transmissive mode (operating in the shoot through mode).

The performance of the following tasks is provided:

  • Manufacturing of a set of vacuum tetrodes with planar emitters (operating in the shoot through mode) of various configurations and studying of their characteristics.
  • Development of anode unit of PMT on the basis of planar emitters on a leakage with increasing time – recession no more than 10-10 s.
  • Development of a design, manufacturing and research of characteristics of experimental samples single-channel and multichannel PMT on basis of planar secondary emitters (operating in the shoot through mode) with amplfication 104-106.

Works on the following directions will be carried out:
  • Optimization of structure and thickness of planar secondary emitters with the purpose of obtaining of the highest amplification and time characteristics.
  • Optimization of time characteristics of anode unit of PMT with planar secondary emitters.
  • Development of a design and manufacturing single-channel and multichannel PMT with planar secondary emitters.
  • Development of a method of studying PMT time characteristics of picosecond range and their magnetic stability, measurements of developed PMT characteristics.

To do so, significant experience gained and high scientific and technical potential of organizations - participants will be used: RIPT – in development of pulse PMT, IHEP – in development of detectors of various types on the basis of unique photomultiplier systems, MELF – in development and manufacture of PMT of the most various types, including multiplying systems on fine-mesh grids.

The basic work on optimization of a design, manufacture of anode units and on development of methods of time characteristics research will be carried out at RIPT; development of phototetrodes, optimization of their time characteristics and amplification in the transmissive mode (operating in the shoot through mode), their manufacture will be fulfilled at IHEP with direct participation of MELF. As a whole the PMT design will be developed by organizations - participants in common, they will be made at IHEP under conditions of information exchange with foreign partners as to coordination of technical requirements and information exchange on results of calculated design work and experimental one.

As a result of performance of the suggested project:

  • experimental samples of magneto-stable single-channel and multichannel PMT of a pico-second range should be made and investigated on the basis of planar emitters operating in the shoot through mode with a photocathode face less 16 sm2;
  • a scientific and technical report on results of the researches carried out with the conclusion included about opportunity and expediency of series production of special PMT on the basis of the developed manufacturing techniques shall be issued.

A patent search is provided with the purpose of corroborating the novelty of the objects developed.

The intellectual property created as a result of works under the project, will belong to organizations - participants in equal shares if it is not especially stipulated.

Intermediate results of researches are provided to be discussed with collaborators and to be analyzed at scientific seminars, conferences, as well as to be published. During performance of the project periodic cooperation with collaborators is expected to be with the purpose of estimating the works, and, if necessary, of correcting the content of researches, and also estimating the prospects of application of obtained results.

In case of successful performance of tasks of the proposed project the organization of a series production of developed PMT will be possible. The future prospects of all participants of the project are determined by a long-term economic basis for the effort of scientists and engineers worked earlier in developing military technique, and give them opportunity of their reorientation to peaceful activity.


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