Blast-Formed Dams in Canyons of Mountain Rivers
Improvement of Methods for Designing Blast-Formed Вams in Сanyons of Mountain Rivers and Prognostic Determination and Characteristics of Such Dams
Tech Area / Field
- NNE-EPP/Electric Power Production/Non-Nuclear Energy
- ENV-APC/Air Pollution and Control/Environment
- ENV-SEM/Seismic Monitoring/Environment
- OBS-NAT/Natural Resources and Earth Sciences/Other Basic Sciences
3 Approved without Funding
Kyrgyz-Russian Slavonic University, Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek
- Institute of Dynamics of the Geosphere, Russia, Moscow
- Idaho State University / College of Engineering, USA, ID, Pocatello\nLawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA, CA, Livermore
Project summaryAim of the project – improvement of the methods to construct explosion-fill dams in canyons of mountain rivers and predicting configuration and main properties of such dams.
Main advantages of explosion-fill dams over the traditional ones (ground-stone and concrete ones), favorable conditions provided (which are controlled by canyon slope angles and canyon width), are the following: simplification of construction organization scheme (no need to construct persion tunnels), reduction of road network at the construction site, essential reduction of effort, volume of goods traffic, requirements for material, loading-transporting equipment, man-power, appreciable reduction of construction period and costs. Besides that, explosion-fill dams have higher seismic stability.
In spite of the available experience of designing, constructing and investigating explosion-fill dams, there is a rather wide scope of unsolved scientific problems, which put obstacles in the way of effective explosion-fill dam constructing. There are no techniques for express estimation of canyon fitness for constructing an explosion-fill dam using possible engineering and economical characteristics of the project. The method to calculate accurately the needed explosive mass in a wide range of depths of installation and for various canyon slope angles is developed inadequately. More exact recommendations should be made for choosing the content of explosives for explosions of different scales and for different preparation periods. Computation methods of predicting density, granular composition and water permeability of the material of explosion-fill dams should be developed. Methods to compute and prevent the harmful effect of explosions on neighboring objects and environment are developed inadequately.
Realization of this project will provide solution of the following problems:
- Development of a technique for express estimation of the possibility to construct an explosion-fill dam of given size in the concrete conditions of the dam site and for the available engineering and economical characteristics of the construction.
- Development of a technique to calculate explosive masses and dam configuration for a wide range of the depths of explosive installation.
- Elaboration of recommendations on choosing the content and sort of explosives, rational from technological and economical points of view in constructing explosion-fill dams, as well as on the ways of charging and preserving explosives for explosions of various scales and different preparation periods.
- Development of a technique to predict material density, granular composition and water permeability of dams.
- Development of a technique to compute the harmful effect of explosions and estimate safe ranges (effects of seismic and shock waves, spreading of toxic gases) using the probability models.
All these problems concern applied investigations and designing.
Express estimation of the possibility to construct an explosion-fill dam of given size will allow to determine the size of dam that can be built in the concrete conditions of the dam site, and find out the economical effectiveness of the construction.
Technique to calculate explosive masses and dam configuration will permit to estimate an optimal scheme of explosion with respect to concrete dam site configuration, presence of necessary amount of ground at canyon sides, preservation of continuity of the rock massif to be exploded in the regions of dam adjoining, and provide constructing an explosion-fill dam of given configuration.
Choosing the content and sort of explosives will provide technological and economical rationality with respect to delivery, charging and preserving the properties of explosives for explosions of various scales and different preparation periods.
Development of a technique to predict material density, granular composition and water permeability of dams will provide the required filtration properties of dam body with respect to the properties of exploded rock, degree of crushing, and the conditions of canyon filling by the exploded rock.
An important problem in constructing an explosion-fill dam is estimation of safe ranges as far as harmful explosion factors are concerned: seismic and shock waves, toxic explosion gases.
All the constituent parts of the project meet the aims of ISTC, because they:
- Give opportunities for KRSU and IDG scientists, specialists in nuclear tests, to conduct civil scientific research;
- Promote integration of CIS scientists into international scientific community;
- Promote civil applied research and designing in the area of environment preservation;
Various scientific approaches and conduction of complex experimental investigations are used to solve the project tasks.
Task 1. Solution of the problem bases on compiling and systematizing the data both on constructed explosion-fill dams and on the available projects of dams, which were only planned to be constructed.
Task 2. The technique to calculate explosive masses is planned to be developed in conducting model investigations on vacuum analogue set-up designed in IDG. This set-up permits to choose the optimal scheme of explosion and estimate the required masses and forms of explosive charges to get the necessary configuration of rock fall down, including the cases of complex relief. Participants of the project used this set-up to investigate explosions, conducted to construct several explosion-fill dams. Some of the explosions were simulated before they were conducted naturally, and the parameters and configuration of dams were predicted with good accuracy.
Task 3. Choosing the content and sort of explosives is essential for a large-scale explosion, because their long-term preservation in explosion drifts is a special problem. Participants of the project have a great amount of experimental data on this topic, some of them have never been published yet. Compilation and analysis of the available data will allow to solve this problem.
Task 4. Development of a technique to predict material density, granular composition and water permeability of dams will be performed using the results of laboratory experiments to be done and by analyzing the data obtained by the participants in investigating filtration properties of constructed dams.
Task 5. Solution of the problem bases on compilation of the data on harmful effect of explosion obtained by participants of the project and other investigators in instrumental observations of large-scale explosions. A computer code will be developed, which will allow to estimate safe ranges basing on probability models.
The International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) is an intergovernmental organization connecting scientists from Kazakhstan, Armenia, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Georgia with their peers and research organizations in the EU, Japan, Republic of Korea, Norway and the United States.
ISTC facilitates international science projects and assists the global scientific and business community to source and engage with CIS and Georgian institutes that develop or possess an excellence of scientific know-how.