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Thermal Safety of Chemical Technologies

#3905


Creation of the Advanced Methods and Means for Investigation of Thermal Hazards of Chemical Processes and Products at their Use, Storage and Transportation.

Tech Area / Field

  • CHE-IND/Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Process Engineering/Chemistry
  • ENV-MRA/Modelling and Risk Assessment/Environment
  • INF-SOF/Software/Information and Communications
  • INS-OTH/Other/Instrumentation

Status
3 Approved without Funding

Registration date
13.10.2008

Leading Institute
Russian Scientific Center of Applied Chemistry, Russia, St Petersburg

Supporting institutes

  • VNIIEF, Russia, N. Novgorod reg., Sarov\nCheminform St Petersburg Ltd., Russia, St Petersburg

Collaborators

  • Akzo Nobel Development and Engineering, The Netherlands, Deventer\nDow Chemical Company, USA, MI, Midland\nNational Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Japan, Tokyo\nBundesanstalt für Materialforschung und prüfung, Germany, Berlin\nFraunhofer Institute Chemische Technologie, Germany, Pfinztal\nNational Research Institute for Fire and Disaster, Japan, Tokyo

Project summary

The Project is aimed at solving an important scientific and technical problem - providing thermal safety in chemical industry and transport. Thermal safety, which denotes complex of measures that prevent hazards associated with occurrence of exothermic reactions (reaction hazards), is a part of the general concept of chemical safety; its importance is well recognized by the international community nowadays. Runaway, which may occur when thermal safety is not provided, was the cause of many grave accidents and catastrophes.

Prevention of runaways in chemical industry (when running chemical processes) as well as avoidance of thermal explosions at transportation of dangerous goods is considered as one of the national security matters for industrial nations. Although there is a large body of research on reaction hazard assessment, the current state of this problem cannot be regarded as satisfactory due to numerous scientific and technical difficulties.

The essence of reaction hazard assessment is in prediction of the behavior of reactive objects (chemical reactors, chemical products at transportation and storage, etc.) under various operation conditions (normal and emergency) and further qualitative and quantitative analysis of potential dangers from those objects. This complex and multilateral problem doesn’t have a simple solution. An oversimplified approach to evaluation of reaction hazards entails many severe errors with grave consequences. Only integrated use of experimental methods, mathematical modeling, etc. can ensure a reliable evaluation of these hazards. This methodology highly improves the quality and reliability of results, reduces research costs, and thus represents an innovative approach to the important practical problem. However, this approach cannot be widely introduced without using quite a complicated scientific and methodology base, up-to-date experimental and computer facilities and latest information technologies as well as recruiting highly-qualified personnel.

The above mentioned matters were the subject of the two preceding ISTC projects. As a part of those projects, a unique methodology for investigation of reaction hazards has been developed together with the Thermal Safety Software (TSS) series. The analog-free TSS series significantly facilitates the use of mathematical modeling in reaction hazard assessment. These developments have gained international recognition and are used by leading chemical companies in the USA, France, Germany, Japan, and Taiwan. A team of highly-qualified specialists was formed to work on the projects, whose competence is recognized by world’s leading experts in reaction hazards. The participants take an active part in various international symposia and conferences. Scientific and technical results of this work are well represented in numerous publications in international journals.

The success of the two preceding ISTC projects and international recognition of their results proved a high scientific and technical potential of the participants and provided support for the selected line of investigations. This is a good reason for further developments. The new Project is proposed to center on creation of advanced methods for investigation of hazards of reactive chemicals to obtain more reliable estimates of safety margins of their use, storage and transportation. Further works are also proposed on the methodology for hazard assessment of chemical processes and design of emergency relief systems. The successful implementation of the new Project can be only possible in close collaboration with foreign specialists. On this basis, participation in the Project of leading chemical companies and safety centers from Europe, Japan and the USA as collaborators is proposed.

The Project tasks include:

  1. Improving the existing and creating new efficient experimental and calculation methods of investigation of reaction hazards and thermal explosions
  2. Further development of the TSS series and enhancement of the functionality to widen the range of applied problems that can be solved
  3. Closer scientific collaboration in this area between Russia and leading industrial countries
  4. Introducing the developed methods and software into international research practice
  5. Commercialization (on the domestic and foreign markets) of the developments based on ISTC projects

The proposed Project meets in full the ISTC goals, in particular, it:
  1. Provides full-time employment for formerly military employed Russian scientists and engineers in their specialty in non-defense areas
  2. Provides a new level of integration of Russian scientists into the world scientist community
  3. Supports fundamental and applied research and developments in chemical safety
  4. Helps solving thermal safety problems both nationwide and worldwide to prevent industrial accidents and catastrophes, human life losses, ecological and material damages
  5. Supports the transition of Russia to a market economy, which addresses civilian needs

Active participation of the collaborators is expected in the following activities:
  • Consulting and information support, including supplying with necessary literature and providing access to collaborator’s databases
  • Design work on improving the methods of thermal safety assessment
  • Assistance in developing software specifications
  • Testing the new methods and software
  • Performing experiments to validate the new methods
  • Joint presentations and publications
  • Assistance in introducing the developed methods into international research practice


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