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Murine Rodents in Central Tajikistan

#T-1594


Ecology-Episotologic Monitoring of Murine Rodents as Basis Carriers Parasitic and Infection Diseases in Central Tajikistan

Tech Area / Field

  • BIO-DIV/Biodiversity/Biotechnology
  • BIO-MIB/Microbiology/Biotechnology

Status
8 Project completed

Registration date
05.12.2007

Completion date
18.07.2013

Senior Project Manager
Weaver L M

Leading Institute
Institute "Biological preparations" of Academy of agricultural sciences RT, Tajikistan, Dushanbe

Supporting institutes

  • Institute of Zoology and Parasitology named after E.N.Pavlovsky, Tajikistan, Dushanbe

Collaborators

  • University of Calgary / University of Calgary/Center for Coastal Health/Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Canada, AB, Calgary\nPacific Northwest National Laboratory, USA, WA, Richland

Project summary

The main purpose of this Project is the complex investigation parasite fauna of murine rodents and their dated for various parasites to different types of hosts. Determination the infectiousness of the rodents by the pathogenic organisms and parasite diseases. Determination the receptivity of various species of rodents to pathogenic organisms. Determination of natural and man-caused sources infections and invasions. Determination the time and seasonal variations of appearance of diseases. Determination the ways of transmission of infection and invasions to the human and domestic animals. Development and implementation the measures on regulation the numbers of murine rodents and prevention the epidemic and epizootic diseases.

The tendency of rapid increase of number of murine rodents in the cities and settlements of Tajikistan creates dangerous epidemiologic and epizootic situation in the last years. Murine rodents are permanent source of appearance the range of infectious and invasive diseases due they are carries (containers) of such diseases. Only among animals the rats can disseminate more than 45 infectious diseases. In total murine rodents transmit more than 200 various pathogenic organisms which are dangerous for people and domestic animals. But most often met leptospirosis, leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis, psevdotuberculosis, listeriosis, iersiniosis pasteriliosis, tularemia and etc.

In settlements the number most of murine rodents is significantly larger than in open natural conditions. The number of Rattus Norvegicus is especially high this recently was never met in Tajikistan. She is an invasive species and was entered in the middle of 90-th last century in Tajikistan. The number of that species is especially high in canals dirtied by domestic wastes and dustbins of multistorey block of flats because of food wastes play an essential role in feed of this animal.

The murine rodents themselves are infected by many infectious diseases, most of them transmitted to humans through ticks, fleas and others insects. Transmissible infectious diseases produced by pathogenic organisms initially localizing and further circulating in blood flow. The infection by these diseases takes place only by sanguivorous arthropoda. The pathogenic organisms can be transmitted through infected food as well as forage and drinking water. Including in community the population of the Rattus Norvegicus and its ectoparasites essentially complicated the situation and particularly made opportunity to exist the natural sources of many diseases.

The natural sources of infections: leptospirosis, listeriosis, leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis, Siberian plague and other antroposoonosis diseases have been appeared due the auspicious conditions of existence these infections and their main carriers – murine rodents.

Project includes three tasks: 1. Zoological – on investigation the fauna of murine rodents; 2. Parasitological – on complex investigation of parasite fauna of rodents; 3. Epizotological – on diagnostic and investigation sources and transmit ways of infectious and parasitical diseases, estimation of epidemiological situation in Tajikistan.

Main tasks of the Project:

  • Investigation of fauna and natural habitats of murine rodents in Central Tajikistan;
  • Investigation fauna and species staff of parasites of murine rodents;
  • Determination the infectiousness of murine rodents by anthropozoogenous infections and invasions;
  • Determination receptivity various rodents to pathogenic organisms of infectious and parasitical diseases;
  • Investigation of parasite holes?of rodents, and also contamination of ground activators various ?antroposoonosis?diseases, including Siberian?plague.
  • Drawing maps of distribution of parasitical systems;
  • Development recommendations on control of murine rodents in settlements and prevention of epidemic and epizootic diseases.

Investigation of parasitefauna of rodents allows detecting of their dated for various parasites to determined types of hosts, determine the extensiveness and intension of hosts infection by parasites as well as define forming parasitefauna of rodents depending on biotic and abiotic factors.

The natural sources of infectious and parasitical diseases will be determined. The receptivity murine rodents to pathogenic organisms of infectious and parasitical diseases will be determined that allows in future to forecast the infective episodes. Obtained data will allow to determine the component rate of parasites composing parasitecenosis of host depending on localization on host, terms of connection with it, developing phases, types of feed and specificity to host.

Complex measures on destruction of the rodents will allow essentially decreasing their number, reducing populations to safety level as well as excluding further expansion of natural habitats of rodents. Exclude further expansion of natural habitat of Rattus Norvegicus. That essentially will decrease the risk of expansion various infectious and parasitic diseases.

The works of scientists of Tajikistan the natural sources of more than 30 inoculable and others infectious diseases of humans and animals have been defined for several last years on territory of Republic. Employers Central Asia Foot and Mouth Disease Center Academy of Agricultural Sciences and Zoology and Parasitology Institute of Academy of Sciences were participated in detection this sources, carried out repeated monitoring on investigation of ecology and distribution murine rodents and their parasite fauna. Scientific staff and research base allow carrying out the works mentioned above.

The participation of foreign collaborators allows researches of Tajikistan to integrate into World scientific community and learn the experience accumulated by scientists of others states in that field.


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