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Extreme Ultra Violet Lithography


Key Technologies of Super-Resolution EUV Nanolithographic System Based on High-Effective Laser-Produced Plasma Source.

Tech Area / Field

  • PHY-OPL/Optics and Lasers/Physics

8 Project completed

Registration date

Completion date

Senior Project Manager
Malakhov Yu I

Leading Institute
Russian Academy of Sciences / Physical Technical Institute, Russia, St Petersburg

Supporting institutes

  • Vavilov State Optical Institute (GOI) / Research Institute for Laser Physics, Russia, St Petersburg


  • Dublin City University, Ireland, Dublin\nCzech Technical University / Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czechia, Prague\nNano-UV sas, France, Villebon sur Yvette\nUniversity College of Dublin / UCD School of Physics, Ireland, Dublin\nFraunhofer Institute Angewandte Optik und Feinmechanik, Germany, Jena

Project summary

The Project is intended to experimentally and theoretically research key problems of EUV lithography hampering to apply this method into ultra large scale integration (ULSI) manufacturing industry and also to develop effective ways to solve these problems.

Basing upon world experience, as well as the own one, obtained during ISTC Project 0991 work, the following problems treated by authors as «key» ones. First of all it’s a problem of light source capable of illuminating the mask evenly with high intensity EUV-radiation beam, time-proof, without nanolithographer elements and optical system degradation for a long period. Basing upon obtained experience and theoretical simulations authors consider further elaboration and improvement of laser-produced plasma (LPP) EUV source quite promising – at least for «ultra-high resolution» nanolithographer models appropriate for progressive ULSI elements development and nanostructures for different purposes. «Ultra-high resolution» requires building wide-aperture nanolithographer optical system providing for exposition of large enough parts of ULSI chip area with minimum number of mirror elements. In conjunction with problems of appropriate EUV-radiation power achievement and «ultra-high resolution» there is a problem of new high-sensitivity photomaterial reducing required radiation intensity as well as increasing of resolution due to image contrast enhancement.

Developing the source authors propose the new approach using advanced CO2 laser design providing for diffractional pergence at high efficiency factors and radiation power at wavelength of 10.6 ?m and its applicability was theoretically proved by authors. CO2 laser is conjugated with master-generator and primary «sublimation» pulse source using particularly diode pumped solid-state laser. The multiplex system design is under research to increase the mask illumination intensity several times with optimal conversion parameters in each source as well as applicability of other (than Xenon) target materials, plasma generation pulse form dependencies and so on. Debris mitigation due to gas-dynamic plasma evolution effects is also under investigation.

Designing the new imaging optical system authors make efforts to include 4-mirror imaging objective with enhanced image area and numeric aperture of ~0,5 providing for outstanding optical resolution – about 10 nm. Mirror manufacture technique providing for atomically smooth and highly aspherical surfaces is being improved. The further resolution enhancement on the semiconductor substrate by nonlinear thin-film metastable systems prepared using atomic layer deposition (ALD) method is under development. Original systems for precise focusing, image alignment and objective adjustment are planned to design.

The Project proposed is based not only upon authors’ scientific and technical experience but also upon material resources created with authors’ participation during 2002-2006 within ISTC Project #0991 named "Physics and Technique of IC Nanometer-Scale Pattern Formation Based on Interaction of Intense EUV Radiation with the Matter". Particularly, the experimental EUV nanolithographer prototype manufactured during this Project will be used. However, to finally put it into operation it is necessary to design and manufacture general control systems, optics adjustment, focusing and nanometric precision layers alignment systems, improve the mask and sample positioners, as well as mask manufacturing techniques.


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