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Radiation Damage to the Thyroid at Iodine Deficiency

#2082


Radiation Damage to the Thyroid for the Population in Areas with a Varying Level of Iodine Deficiency

Tech Area / Field

  • MED-RAD/Radiomedicine/Medicine
  • MED-DIS/Disease Surveillance/Medicine

Status
3 Approved without Funding

Registration date
15.01.2001

Leading Institute
A.I. Burnazyan Federal Medical and Biophysical Center, Russia, Moscow

Supporting institutes

  • Institute of Radioecological Problems, Belarus, Minsk\nEndocrinological Research Center, Russia, Moscow

Collaborators

  • International Atomic Energy Agency, Austria, Vienna\nPoliclinico Universitario, Italy, Messina\nUS Department of Health & Human Services / National Institute of Health / National Cancer Institute, USA, MD, Bethesda\nUS Department of Health & Human Services / National Institute of Health, USA, MD, Bethesda\nNational Radiological Protection Board, UK, Chilton\nKarolinska Institute, Sweden, Stockholm

Project summary

The purpose of the proposed Project is to study the peculiarities of radiation damage to the thyroid upon the intake of short-lived radioiodines (131I, 132I, 133I, 134I, and 135I) and of the modified influence of stable iodine deficiency on the metabolism and on biological effects in the thyroid.
Many countries in the world are characterized by a varying degree of stable iodine deficiency in locally produced food and water (in the Russian Federation such regions cover about half of the entire territory of the country). Thus, authors stress that the problem of radiation damage to the thyroid, especially in endemic areas, has not only a medical, but also a social-economic importance. However, it is important in terms of radiation protection and radiobiology as a science. This problem remains insufficiently investigated.
In order to reach the Project aim, the following tasks will be accomplished:
· Study of metabolism of radioisotopes of iodine (131I, 132I, 133I, 134I, and 135I) and modified influence of iodine deficiency on metabolism processes.
· Modeling of absorbed dose distribution over thyroid tissues under intake of radioisotopes of iodine (131I, 132I, 133I, 134I, and 135I).
· Study of modified influence of iodine deficiency on biological action of radioisotopes of iodine (131I, 132I, 133I, 134I, and 135I).
· Clinical-epidemiological study of thyroid and thyroid-dependent pathology for people exposed to radioisotopes of iodine in regions with a varying degree of stable iodine deficiency.
· Justification of safe levels of radiation exposure of radioisotopes of iodine (131I, 132I, 133I, 134I, and 135I) to the thyroid under iodine deficiency.
As a result of implementation of the tasks listed in the Project the following new data of practical and scientific importance will be received:
· assessment of the biological danger of radioisotopes of iodine (131I, 132I, 133I, 134I, and 135I) under modified influence of iodine deficiency;
· assessment of safe levels of radiation exposure of radioisotopes of iodine (131I, 132I, 133I, 134I, and 135I) to the thyroid under stable iodine deficiency;
· justification of approaches to use a stable iodine preparation for treatment of radiation damage to the thyroid in regions with goiter endemy, and for prophylaxis of goiter endemy in regions contaminated by radioiodines;
· investigation into reasons for inadequacy between calculated estimates of doses to the thyroid and the real biological effects of radiation damage to the thyroid;
· new models for thyroid dose calculation, based on consideration of spatial-temporal distribution of doses over thyroid tissues.
In the framework of the Project material on long-term radiation-hygiene, dosimetry, radiobiology and epidemiological studies will be generalized. This material was obtained by specialists from the State Research Center of the Russian Federation – Institute of Biophysics, Endocrinological Research Center of the Russian Academy of Medical Science, the Institute of Radioecological Problems of the National Academy of Science of the Republic of Belarus, the Russian Federal Nuclear Center – VNIIEF (Arzamas-16), and the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute (St. Petersburg), as a result of implementation of different studies into the consequences of nuclear weapons testing and the Chernobyl accident. Data on laboratory experiments at the State Research Center of the Russian Federation - Institute of Biophysics and the Institute of Radioecological Problems of the National Academy of Science of the Republic of Belarus are to be integrated into the analysis.
The State Research Center of the Russian Federation - Institute of Biophysics is the leading institution in the Russian Federation (and in the former USSR) on the problem of radiation protection. The staff of the institute was previously involved in nuclear weapons testing and mitigation of the consequences of all radiation accidents, including medical accidents. It conducts experimental studies on the toxicology of radioactive materials, and develops clinical, dosimetric, radiation-hygiene, and epidemiological methods for those exposed to radiation. Assessment of the biological danger of iodine radioisotopes to humans is among the most important problems that have been studied at the State Research Center of the Russian Federation - Institute of Biophysics for a considerable time.
The Endocrinological Research Center of the Russian Academy of Medical Science is a head scientific-clinic institution in the Russian Federation on problems of endocrinology. It is a leading center, which provides screening studies of thyroid diseases for the Russian population, exposed to the consequences of the Chernobyl accident and for those involved in its liquidation.
The Institute of Radioecological Problems of the National Academy of Science of the Republic of Belarus was specially created to solve the radiation problems caused by the Chernobyl accident. The leading collaborators of the institute (Project participants) are involved in mitigation of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident.
The results of the investigation in the framework of the Project will have scientific and practical importance for public health, radiation safety, and radiobiology.
For the public health system these results will be of practical importance for encoding mechanisms of the combined influence of radiation exposure and goiter endemy on the thyroid, and for providing a scientific justification to pathogenetic approaches to prophylaxis and treatment of thyroid disorders of complex genesis. This is because the mechanisms of damage to the thyroid, owing to radiation exposure and iodine deficiency, have a complex genesis and can not be considered isolated.
For radiation safety:
- the results of investigations will allow one to justify coefficients, taking into account the unevenness of distribution of absorbed doses in structures of normal thyroid and of goiter thyroid;
- radiation risk due to exposure to thyroid of radioisotopes of iodine (131I, 132I, 133I, 134I, and 135I) to the thyroid will be assessed.
For radiobiology:
- new data will be obtained on the modified influence of iodine deficiency on radiation effects and some tendencies regarding the combined influence of radiation and non-radiation effects will be studied;
- an explanation will be given of the discrepancy between prognosis and real thyroid morbidity under low levels of radiation exposure to the population in regions of goiter endemy, contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident.
Clinical realization of the Project is aimed at
- receiving data on assessment of the structure of thyroid pathology;
- revealing mutation of gene RET and immune-histo-chemical markers of thyroid oncogenicity under nodule forms of goiter in children, living in regions with varying levels of radioactive contamination and iodine deficiency.
As a result of work on the Project the following is to be prepared:
1. Monograph “Radiation damage to the thyroid from radioiodines for the population in areas with a varying level of iodine deficiency”.
2. Separate document (draft) for IAEA “Safe levels of radiation exposure of radioisotopes of iodine (131I, 132I, 133I, 134I, and 135I) to the thyroid under stable iodine deficiency”.


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