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Anodes for Manganese Electrowinning


Anodes for Improvement Technical, Economic and Environmental Indices of Manganese Electrowinning Process

Tech Area / Field

  • CHE-IND/Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Process Engineering/Chemistry
  • ENV-SPC/Solid Waste Pollution and Control/Environment
  • MAT-SYN/Materials Synthesis and Processing/Materials

3 Approved without Funding

Registration date

Leading Institute
R. Agladze Institute of Inorganic Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Georgia, Tbilisi


  • Center for Advanced Mineral & Metallurgical Processing, USA, MT, Butte\nImperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine / Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology, UK, London

Project summary

The goal of the project is to elaborate efficient anodes for improvement technical, economic and environmental indices of manganese electrowinning.

Essentially doped lead anodes are used in electrowinning technology of metals. Development of more effective anodes for metal electrowinning is a high-priority task. Majority of the abstracts presented at the Second International Symposium on the Practice and Theory of Aqueous Electro metallurgy (Canada, August 2001) can serve as a good illustration for it [1].

At present, silver doped lead anodes (1% Ag) are used in producing electrolytic metallic manganese, what results in anode sliming of 0.38-0.45 t per ton of the product (Mn). Slime of manganese and lead compounds is a process waste that arises a number of problems:

– environment pollution by waste products;

– unproductive raw material consumption, resulting in increase of overall volume of facilities and capital investments;
– high energy consumption during preparation of additional quantity of manganese containing solution for electrolysis baths;
– hard-predictable anode destruction caused by active corrosion along "waterline";
– frequent clean-up of anodes and baths (once in 20-24 days), replacement of diaphragms, remelting of anodes. All these sharply decrease annual productivity of electrolysis baths.

At R. Agladze Institute of Inorganic Chemistry and Electrochemistry (Academy of Sciences of Georgia) new type anodes have been developed [2], what make possible reduce slime forming 10 times (0.02-0.04 t per ton of the product instead of 0.38-0.45 t) without changing of the electrolysis electric parameters. Developed anodes are of two types:

– anodes with dielectric surfaces with active sections of current conducting material (type "A");

– titanium anodes with lead doped surfaces (type "B").

It is supposed to complete technological development of the elaborated anodes to promote realization of scientific innovations in industry.

The project relates to the category of applied investigations and technology designing.

Within the scope of the project further investigations will:

– establish possibility of further reduction of sliming (below 0.02-0.04 t per ton of the product) and design anodes with minimal sliming;

– carry out anodes large-scale laboratory testing immediately during the process of manganese electrowinning;
– make technical-economic analysis of innovation implementing;
– design industrial anodes production technology;
– formulate recommendations for the simplicity of electrolysis baths.

Implementation of the project will make it possible solve ecology problem connected with anode sliming, improve technological and economic parameters for metallic manganese production. Replacing of existing anodes with new ones offers:

– to exclude environment pollution by waste products (0.38-0.45 t per ton of the output) in the stage of electrowinning;

– to increase total extraction coefficient of manganese by 6-8%;
– to decrease consumption of raw materials and energy by 8-10%;
– to exclude anodes corrosion destruction along "waterline";
– to decrease frequency (once in 6-12 months instead of 20-24 days) of bath and anodes clean-up, diaphragms replacement, and practically exclude anodes remelting;
– to increase annual productivity of electrolysis bath, to decrease facilities volume and investments;
– to simplify electrochemical reactor construction;
– to decrease facilities volume and capital investments.

Group of the scientists in this project have significant research and manufacturing experience in aqueous electrometallurgy, electrosynthesis, electrode process kinetics, electrocristallization, physical- chemical analisis of inorganic materials.

The participants of the project are used to take part in organization and work of local and international conferences and symposiums on manganese compounds. They hold patents and their works and investigations have been published in abstract editions [2-26].

The majority of project participants were engaged in work on military themes. Implementation of the project will provide transfer of these scientists to the civilian application.


1. Second International Symposium On The Practice and Theory Of Aqueous Electrometallurgy 31st Annual Hydrometallurgical Meeting/Electrometallurgy 2001 Symposium/August 26-30,2001/Toronto, Ontario,

2. (76) E.Chichinadze, Tin.Lezhava, S.Dolidze, T.Gagnidze. (54) Method for Production of Metallic Manganese. (11) GE P 2001 2412, (21) AP 1999 003698.

3. (76) E.Chichinadze, Tin.Lezhava. (54) Method for Production of Metallic Manganese.(11) GE U Positive resolution (21) AU 2001 000929

4. (76) Tin.Lezhava, E.Chichinadze, J.Gvelesiani. (54) Method for Manufacturing Anode for Producing Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide. (11) GE P 2000 2000. (21) AP 1997 002880.

5. (76) Tin.Lezhava, E.Chichinadze, K.Mosashvili. (54) Method for Production of Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide. (11) GE P 2000 2293. (21) AP 1999 003648.

6. (76) E.Chichinadze, J.Gvelesiani, Tin.Lezhava. (54) Electrolizer for Producing Metal Powders and Metal Alloys. (11) GE P 1998 1492. (21) AP 1997 002651

7. (76) Tin.Lezhava, E.Chichinadze, Tam.Lezhava, J.Gvelesiani. (54) Electrolizer Body for Production of Manganese Dioxide. (11) GE U 1999 492 (21) AU 1998 000622.

8. (76) E.Chichinadze, Tin.Lezhava, V.Chagelishvili, T.Rokva. (54) Method for Production of Anode to Obtain Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide. (11) GE U 2001 750. (21) AU 2000 000841.

9. (76) Tin.Lezhava, E.Chichinadze, Tam.Lezhava. (54) Method for Production of Electrolytic Copper Powder. (10) GE P 2001 2519. (21) AP 1999 003501.

10. (76) Tin.Lezhava, E.Chichinadze, M.Chichinadze. (54) Electrolizer for Production of Metal Powders and Metall Alloys. (10) GE P 2001 2518. (21) AP 1999 003431.

11. (76) Tin.Lezhava, E.Chichinadze, M.Chichinadze. (54) Method for Production of Electrolytic Zinc. (10) GE P 2001 2520. (21) AP 1998 003085.

12. (76) J.Gvelesiani, T.Gagnidze, Tam.Lezhava. (54) Electrochemical Reactor. (11) Ge U 1997 578.

13. (76) J.Kebadze, V.Pruidze, L.Kakuria, T. Chakhunashvili. (54) Anode for Production of Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide. (11) GE P 1997 2003.

14. Tin.Lezhava, E.Chichinadze, J.Gvelesiani. Metal Precipitation at Super-High Current Densities. // 50th ISE Meeting, 5-10 September 1999, Pavia, Italy, p. 221.

15. T.Marsagishvili, J.Japaridze, M.Machavariani. Investigation of the Adsorption – Desorption Processes in Electrochemical systems by “second Harmonic signal” (SHS) Method. // 50th ISE Meeting, 5-10 September 1999, Pavia, Italy, p.157.

16. J.Kebadze, T.Chakhunashvili, etc. Novel Methods of Ti-gMnO2 Anods Preparation to Obtain Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide. // Bulletin of the Georgian Academy of Sciences. 158,3,1998, p.p.447-449

17. N. Ananiashvili and T.Lezhava. Complex formation in the CuSO4NH2C2H4OHH2O. // Koordinationnaija Khimija (Russian Journal of Coordination Chemistry), 1997, v.23, N2 p.p.135-138 (in russian).

18. T.Lezhava, N.Ananiashvili. Some peculiarities of Electrodeposition of Copper in Conditions of rised stability of Intermediate //Electokhimija, 1989, v.22, N3, p.p.421-424 (in russian).

19. T.Lezhava, N.Ananiashvili, M.Kikabidze, B.Tsanava. Influence of pH and the aminoacid nature on the value of the Cu(II) and Cd(II) ions diffusion coefficient //Proceedings of the Georgian Academy of Sciences, Chem. series, 2000, v.26, N1-2, p.p.31-34.

20. Т.Machaladze, I.Samadashvili. Thermogravimetric investigation of magnesium-zinc and copper-zinc ferrites and ferite-formed mixtures. //Proceedings of the Ggeorgian Aacademy of Sciences. Chem. series, 1999, vol.25,N1-2, p.p.38-41.

21. R.Agladze, О.Sadunishvili, I.Gvalia. Lead Anode Behaviour During Electrolitic Manganese Obtaining. // Electrochemistry of Manganese, ed. “Metsniereba”, Tbilisi, 1988, v.IX, p.p.46-49.

22. I.Gvalia, О.Sadunishvili. Oxalic Acid Influence of Phase Composition of Lead Anode Corosion and It’s Silver Alloges. //ребром. // Electrochemistry of Manganese, ed. “Metsniereba”, Tbilisi, 1988, v.IX, p.p.50-53.

23. Т.Lomia, G.Karashvili. On Manganese Cations Participation in Hydrogen Cathodic Discharge. // Electrochemistry of Manganese, ed. “Metsniereba”, Tbilisi, 1988, v.IX, p.p.77-81.

24. G.Mamporia, G.Mchedlishvili. Influence of Temperature on Manganese Chromit electrowinning // Electrochemistry of Manganese, ed. “Metsniereba”, Tbilisi, 1988, v.IX, p.p.111-114.

25. N.Gogishvili. Investigation of New Diaphragm Materials During Manganese Compounds Electrolysis // Electrochemistry of Manganese, ed. “Metsniereba”, Tbilisi, 1988, v.IX, p.p.129-131.

26. N.Demuria.Aplication of New Diaphragm Materials in Manganese Ore Enrichment. // Electrochemistry of Manganese, ed. “Metsniereba”, Tbilisi, 1988, v.IX, p.p.136-140.


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