Development of New Botanical Nematicides for Control of Potato Cyst Nematodes (Globodera spp.)
Tech Area / Field
- AGR-DIS/Disease Surveillance/Agriculture
- AGR-PPR/Plant Protection/Agriculture
- BIO-CGM/Cytology, Genetics and Molecular Biology/Biotechnology
3 Approved without Funding
Kyrgyz Scientific Research Institute of Livestock Breeding and Pastures, Kyrgyzstan, Komsomolsky
- Michigan State University, USA, MI, East Lansing
Project summaryPotatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) are the number one non-grain food crop on a global basis. Annual production is more than 310 million tons, with an average yield of circa 17 tons per acre. In Kyrgyzstan, potatoes are a very important everyday food crop and also of high significance as forage for animal agriculture. Potato cyst nematodes (Globodera rostochiensis , Woll, 1923; Behrens, 1975 and G. pallida, Stone, 1977; Behrens 1977) are key pests/pathogens of potato and can result in tuber yield loss from 30-90%. More recently, potatoes have been identified as a host for several other Globodera spp. (Skantar et al., 2011). Potato cyst nematodes were introduced into Kyrgyzstan in 1994, with potato seed pieces imported from Belarus. The Kyrgyz Republic, Ministry of Agriculture distributed the seed to economically poor farmers in the form of a commodity credit. Both G. rostochiensis (Golden Nematode) and G. pallida (Pale Cyst Nematode) are known to exist in Belarus. Consequently, potato cyst nematodes have spread throughout the Republic and have been confirmed to be present on farms of the Kemin region, Jalalabat and Chui provinces. The problem appears to be spreading to other regions. Currently, there is an urgent need for development and implementation of an improved potato cyst nematode management program in Kyrgyzstan.
The goals of this project are to: 1) determine the extent of cyst nematode infestations throughout the potato growing regions of Kyrgyzstan, 2) use both morphological and molecular technologies to accurately identify the cyst nematode species associated with these infestations, and 3) develop environmentally friendly potato cyst nematode management practices: with special reference to new and novel botanically-based nematicides.
Potato cyst nematodes are quarantine pests/pathogens of major significance. Infringement of the rules of international seed potato transportation, potato mono-cropping and cultivation of susceptible plant species has resulted in this serious and widespread problem. While plant breeders have developed potato varieties with resistance to cyst nematodes. this resistance is nematode species specific. The G. pallida is able to overcome the dominant resistant gene H and has three prototypes (Ra 1, Ra 2 and Ra 3). This means that for successful deployment of resistant varieties, it is essential to have properly identified the cyst nematode species of interest. Currently, potato varieties with resistant to G. rostochiensis are available, however, varieties with resistance to G. pallida is much less advanced. It is essential, therefore, to accurately identify the species before selecting a nematode resistant variety. Unfortunately, it is difficult to differentiate between these two species using classical morphological characteristics. In addition, five pathotypes of the Golden nematode have been identified (Ro 1-normal, Ro 2, Ro 3, Ro 4 and Ro 5-aggressive). It is imperative, therefore that both classical morphological and modern molecular technologies be used for timely and accurate diagnostics and research.
To date, only general articles about the distribution of the Golden Nematode in Kyrgyzstan have been published by the Department of Plant Protection and Quarantine and the Department of Chemicalization and plant Protection. Potato farmers, however, are very concerned about the appearance of this potato nematode and associated significant decreases in tuber yields. Some tuber yield losses have been close to 100%. There is an urgent need for the development and implementation of integrated potato cyst nematode practices that include the use of good agronomic practices, resistant varieties and new/novel environmentally friendly nematicides. Fortunately, screening of higher plants with pesticidal potential began in 2001 through financial support of ISTC (Projects KR-482 and KR 1122.2). Plants with insecticidal, acaricidal, growth stimulating and nematicidal activity were identified among the more than 200 plant species evaluated. These studies provide a unique and very strong foundation for continuation of targeted search for species with nematicial activity, plant species suitable for creation of botanically-based nematicides to protect potato plants from cyst nematodes.
The project will consist of the following five tasks:
1. Conduct a potato cyst nematode survey throughout the potato growing regions of Kyrgyzstan.
2. Use both morphological and molecular technology to identify the Globodera spp. present in Kyrgyzstan. This will be done in cooperation with the Nematology Laboratory of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service in Beltsville, Maryland. In addition, USDA/ARS; USDA, Animal, Plant and Health Inspection Service and Michigan State University (MSU) Diagnostic Services will assist in providing training for young Kyrgyzstan professionals in the domain of rapid and accurate identification of cyst nematode species.
3. Identify botanical chemicals with nematicidal activity against Globodera spp.
4. Develop and evaluate botanical nematicides.
5. Design environmentally friendly integrated potato cyst nematode controlpractices for Kyrgyzstan potato growers. This will be done in cooperation with the G. W. Bird Nematology Laboratory at MSU: with special reference to the identification and evaluation of cyst nematode resistant potato varieties.
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