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Explosive Works Safety

#0612-2


Investigation of Opportunities for Increasing Explosives Work Safety in Collieries with Dangerous Levels of Gas and Dust

Tech Area / Field

  • ENV-EHS/Environmental Health and Safety/Environment

Status
8 Project completed

Registration date
21.05.1998

Completion date
25.05.2002

Senior Project Manager
Malakhov Yu I

Leading Institute
VNIITF, Russia, Chelyabinsk reg., Snezhinsk

Supporting institutes

  • Siberian Branch of RAS / Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (ITPMech), Russia, Novosibirsk reg., Novosibirsk

Collaborators

  • Los-Alamos National Laboratory, USA, NM, Los-Alamos\nLawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA, CA, Livermore\nDefense Special Weapons Agency, USA, VA, Alexandria

Project summary

This project results from combining two Institute of Technical Physics (RFNC - VNIITF) projects #612 "Investigation of the Opportunity to Increase the Explosive Works' Safety in Collieries Dangerous on Gas and Dust" and #613 "Kinetics of Commercial Explosives Decomposition in a Detonation Wave", which was made under the project development grant approved by the US government, and in accordance with the recommendation of the US representatives at the March meeting of the ISTC Governing Board. The project is devoted to investigation of two major problems of safe blasting in coal mines. The first goal of the project is to develop a numerical simulation methodology to model the formation, ignition and detonation processes in methane-dust-air mixtures during blasting in coal mines. The second goal of the project is to develop a numerical simulation methodology to model the initiation and detonation processes in commercial explosives. An auxiliary goal is to carry out computational and experimental testing of mining practices to increase the safety of blasting.

Under the proposed project, two topics will be investigated simultaneously:


(A) Behavior of gas-dust mixtures under various conditions, including those likely to result in explosions.
(B) Detonation properties and reaction kinetics of industrial (commercial)explosives.

Expected Results

"A". Formation, Ignition and Detonation of Coal-Dust-Air Mixture.


1. Experimental data are expected to be obtained in a series of laboratory tests studying microstructure of two-phase flows in a model shock tube using a new complex of quick-operating measurement equipment implementing up-to-date contact-free methods of optical recording. The use of this highly sensitive diagnostic equipment with high spatial-time resolution enables to quantify physical processes involved in mixture formation, acceleration, ignition and combustion of coal particles, output of volatile particles.
2. Advanced mathematical models of the mechanics of various reactive media are expected to be developed. The models are expected to describe the processes occurring in formation of mixtures (with turbulent gas phase), ignition of dusts, steady modes of air-coal dust mixture combustion, solid-phase combustion energy being released behind the front of the leading shock wave. These models are expected to be calibrated using data from the tests conducted in the model shock tube.
3. Experimental data obtained in a series of detonation experiments using air-suspensions of combustible dispersed materials. The experiments will be conducted in the large-scale shock tubes, 20-200 cm in diameter, equipped with diagnostic hardware and located at the test range of RFNC-VNIITF. The experiments will be described using the developed mathematical models of the mechanics of various reactive media.

"B". Detonation Properties of Commercial Explosives.

The following work will be undertaken, and the results obtained will be presented in technical reports and publications:


1. Experimental techniques, based on existing experimental facilities, will be developed to determine the following gas dynamics and detonation properties of commercial explosives based on demilitarized TNT extracted from old munitions:

- Equations of state of unreacted explosive and detonation products.
- Detonation velocity, CJ pressure, detonation front curvature, and work performed by the detonation products as functions of charge diameter.
- Critical diameter.
- Reaction zone characteristics of steady and overdriven detonation waves.
- Characteristics of shock-wave initiation and build-up to detonation in 1D gap tests.

2. All the detonation experiments will be simulated numerically using 1D and 2D computer codes. For the commercial explosives tested in the proposed project, the following will be determined or developed:

- Numerical simulation technique for initiation and detonation.
- Semi-empirical model of detonation kinetics model.
- Parameters of the kinetics model for each type of explosive.

3. Existing detonation kinetics models will be analyzed for their applicability to commercial explosives, in particular, for reproducing the structural characteristics of the reaction zone in steady and overdriven detonation waves.

The experimental, theoretical, and computational data obtained from work carried out during the proposed project will be presented in open publications and reports. Proposed future work involve the use of results obtained in this project for computer simulations of various explosion scenarios with the studied explosives, in order to improve safety and efficiency of blasting in commercial coal mines.

Scope of Activities

Experimental and theoretical activities to be undertaken in the proposed project include:


A1. Methodical activities using special lab facility to model interaction between shock waves and small particles. ITAM RAS SD.
A2. Design and conduct lab-scale experiments to study microstructure of two-phase flow (physical processes involved in mixing, acceleration, ignition and combustion of coal particles, loss of volatile particles). ITAM RAS SD.
A3. Develop a mathematical model describing mixing processes. Calibrate the model using experimental data. RFNC-VNIITF, ITAM RAS SD.
A4. Develop a mathematical model describing processes involved in dust ignition. Calibrate the model using experimental data. RFNC-VNIITF, ITAM RAS SD.
A5. Develop a mathematical model describing steady modes of air-coal dust mixture combustion with the release of solid-phase combustion energy behind the front of the leading shock wave. Calibrate the model using experimental data. RFNC-VNIITF, ITAM RAS SD.
A6. Develop experimental techniques to determine parameters of physical processes that occur during explosions in air-gas-dust mixtures.
A7. Conduct experiments using explosives in large facilities to imitate commercial explosions.
A8. Develop technique to calculate interaction of shock waves and explosion products with air-gas-dust mixtures, verifying and calibrating methodical calculations using data of half-scale experiments.
B1. Arrange activities using commercial explosives.
B2. Select and optimize the experimental techniques, and design the required experimental assemblies.
B3. Conduct experiments to determine detonation properties of the explosives.

Theoretical activities to be undertaken in the proposed project include:


B4. Analyze the published experimental data on the explosives.
B5. Select a model of decomposition kinetics of the explosives.
B6. Devise and test computer codes to model the decomposition kinetics of the explosives.
B7. Simulate the experiments with the explosives numerically.
B8. Analyze the results of the simulations in comparison with experimental data.


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