Mutagen and Carcinogen Hazard
Detection of Mutagen and Carcinogen Hazard by Physico-Chemical Techniques
Tech Area / Field
- CHE-THE/Physical and Theoretical Chemistry/Chemistry
- INS-DET/Detection Devices/Instrumentation
8 Project completed
Senior Project Manager
Weaver L M
MIFI, Russia, Moscow
- VNIIEF, Russia, N. Novgorod reg., Sarov\nCancer Research Center / Scientific Research Institute of Carcinogenesis, Russia, Moscow
- US Environmental Protection Agency / National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, USA, NC, Research Triangle Park\nCase Western Reserve University / Radiology/Nuclear Medicine, USA, OH, Cleveland
Project summaryThe objective of this project is to develop a new universal physic-chemical screening assay for chemical carcinogens and mutagens and to design several types of devices on the basis of this method. It would allow:
a) to make the identifying of carcinogenicity and mutagenicity available to checking by organs of ecological, medical-epidemiological services and controlling local bodies, to control and direction of industrial processes on enterprises of chemical, oil, gas and other fields of industry;
b) to decrease the time and cost of carcinogenicity and mutagenicity determination about a thousand times in comparison to current methods;
c) to identify carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of unfractioned complex mixtures of chemicals and of wastes, in particular;
d) to provide the automatic monitoring of the objects in conditions where the presence of a man is hampered or prohibited.
The principle of the method is based on the theoretical assumption that most direct chemical carcinogens and mutagens are electrophilic and also on the results of the preliminary investigations of electron attachment rates of procarcinogens and promutagens (Bakale, 1987). It follows that genotoxic carcinogens being an acceptor of electrons can be revealed by measuring the life time of free electrons in a mixture of a tested chemical with a certain matter in a gaseous or liquid phase.
Several kinds of devices for measuring the lifetime of free electrons in the mixtures of tested chemicals with definite solvent will be developed during the course of the project. The investigation of the correlation of carcinogenicity and the lifetime of free electrons will be continued.
To apply the electron test it is necessary to solve a set of principal questions, in particular, to elucidate the mechanism of revealing of electrophilicity by inactivated procarcinogens, to formulate and to substantiate the electron criterion of carcinogenicity, to investigate the additiveness of carcinogenicity revealing in complex mixtures.
At the present time more than 70 000 chemicals are commonly used commercially and new ones are being continually generated at the approximate rate of three per hour. In addition to this exogenous component of potential human exposure to primarily synthetic chemicals, exposures to "natural carcinogens" and a lifestyle component also contribute to our burden of environmental exposures to carcinogens. So the need to develop efficacious means of screening chemicals for potentially biohazardous effects is evident.
The current methods of carcinogen activity determination demand much time, great means deficit resources and experienced personnel and can be used only in specially equipped laboratories.
For the last years in a series of works it has been shown that the methods of carcinogen identifying could be essentially improved by using a physic-chemical electron test of electrophilicity determination.
The typical duration of the electron test including computer handling of results is tens minutes, but the measurement itself needs not more than several seconds and the most part of time is spend for preparation and changing samples.
In providing planned works the participation of the scientists and engineers of Federal Nuclear Center can be of priceless help because they have rich experience in working with radioactive materials which being genotoxic initiate mutations and tumors in humans. The biologists of the Center are experienced in a wide range of special assays.
It is assumed that after fulfilling of this project the devices developed in this project will be produced and former weapon industries can play a significant role taking part in the humane deal of fight for ecological clearness of environment and for the peoples health.
Foreign collaborators are invited to participate in the project. Types of collaboration: participation of the collaborators in the project development; exchange of information; review of technical reports; joint seminars, workshops, meetings, consultations; verification of the obtained results; sharing of materials and samples; joint or parallel investigations; collaboration on IPR protection; collaboration on commercialization of the results after the project has been completed.
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