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Enterosorbents of Heavy Metals and Radionuclides

#KR-1330


Polymer Products for the Civil Purposes - New Preventive Drugs

Tech Area / Field

  • CHE-POL/Polymer Chemistry/Chemistry
  • MED-RAD/Radiomedicine/Medicine
  • MED-DRG/Drug Discovery/Medicine
  • ENV-EHS/Environmental Health and Safety/Environment

Status
3 Approved without Funding

Registration date
29.07.2005

Leading Institute
Kyrgyz-Russian Slavonic University, Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek

Supporting institutes

  • Kyrgyz State Medical Academy, Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek\nInstitute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russia, Moscow reg., Chernogolovka

Collaborators

  • Université Louis Pasteur / Faculte de Chimie, France, Strasbourg\nTexas A&M University / College of Veterinary Medicine, USA, TX, College Station\nUniversity of Georgia / Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, USA, GA, Athens

Project summary

One of the important problems for preventive maintenance and treatment of people affected by radioactive materials as a result of their penetration into an internal medium of the patient is to synthesize new low toxic medical preparations having universal complexing ability of linkage of radionuclides and the removal them out of an organism.

The purpose of the project is to provide new preventive medical preparations of natural origin for the removal of toxic ions of heavy metals and radionuclides out of a patient organism. It is supposed to perform in its frameworks a complex of activities on synthesis and research of enterosorbents of the radionuclides with enhanced efficiency of action and low toxicity.

From the data of the Ministry of Ecology and Extraordinary Situations in the Kyrgyz Republic ecological conditions in the locale with each year are worsened. 44 tailing ponds and 66 ore mining enterprise burrows containing significant amounts of the radioelements and heavy metals are sited in the territory of the Kyrgyz Republic. The pollution of the considerable areas is also being promoted by exploitation of coal deposits by the open excavation method that has resulted in an agglomerate of 412.1 million cubic meters of rocks. The quantity of toxic solid industrial wastes containing heavy metals has increased by 55.7 %. The sewages with the considerable contents of harmful materials are annually dumped into water reservoirs. An accumulation of toxic elements in an organism occurs at their migration in the chain of air water soil a plant an animal a patient.

The existing preparations used for the removal of the heavy metals and radionuclides out of an organism of people are synthetic, poorly effective and have side effects, in particular, they cause the decrease of quantity of microelements in an organism. In this connection, more attention is recently paid to natural compound-based preparations, which do not cause the undesirable side effects in the patient organism. The modified natural cellulose- and pectin-based polymers having complexing and sorbent properties fall in this category. However, effective methods to provide medicinal materials on their basis, in particular, in territory of the Kyrgyz Republic, have not designed yet. The general economical difficulties in territories of the former Soviet republics have resulted in that the production of own effective antidote preparations has not been commercialized in the Republic of Belarus most badly damaged by consequences of the accident in the Chernobyl atomic power station. In this connection an actual problem not only for the Kyrgyz Republic, but for a number of the former Soviet republics with the radio-chemically contaminated territories is to develop the optimum and ecological safe methods to provide new medical preparations, to research of their chemical and biological properties, and to use them in the clinical practice. Initial raw cellulose and pectin are annually restored resources in the Kyrgyz Republic. The idea to modify the initial reactants in oxidation reaction with nitrogen dioxide to obtain carboxy derivatives with enhanced complexing properties forms the basis of the method to design the new enterosorbents of the radionuclides and heavy metals. The action of these preparations is based on formation of poorly dissociated and difficultly solvable salts of polyglucoronic and polygalacturonic acids with the heavy metals and radionuclides. In the project it is expected to increase a series of synthesized carboxy derivatives of cellulose and pectin with the increased contents of carboxylic groups owing to the oxidation of cellulose derivatives with open pyranose cycle and the oxidation of galactans that are included in a structure of natural pectins. The approaches proposed in the project to provide the effective enterosorbents of the radionuclides and heavy metals are based on the original developments of the participants of the project and they have been confirmed by the results obtained and allow the project as a whole to be performed successfully.

The submitted project represents a complex of experimental studies. It proposes:

  • to design the methods and synthesize the cellulose- and pectin-based preparations for the removal toxic ions of the heavy metals and radionuclides out of a patient organism;
  • to definite a structure and both physico-chemical and technological parameters of new compounds;
  • to perform pharmacological researches on biological objects;
  • to perform clinical tests and work out the normative documents (the pharmacopeia article, the sanction to application etc.);
  • to organize marketing activity.

Expected results and their application. The results of the research to be carried out are:
  • to synthesize the new preventive medical preparations;
  • to establish the connection of the contents of carboxylic, aldehydic and nitrate groups, MMD of the synthesized preparation with its complexing and sorbent properties in relation to the cations of the heavy metals and radionuclides, and also physiological cations;
  • to perform necessary pre-clinical and clinical tests of the synthesized preparations;
  • to design the technologies to provide the new preventive medical preparations;
  • to work out the normative documents for the synthesized preventive medical preparations.

Scope of activities. The project includes the following main studies:
  1. Design of methods and synthesis of cellulose- and pectin-based compounds having the necessary complex of sorbent and complexing properties in relation to the ions of the heavy metals and radionuclides;
  2. Determination of physico-chemical properties of new compounds and a connection of a compound structure with its extraction ability;
  3. Definition of pharmacological efficiency of the preparations on biological objects;
  4. Determination of the therapeutic preparation action in the clinical conditions and working out the conforming normative documents on the basis of the results obtained.

The scientific value consists in the development of the methods of directional synthesis of the enterosorbents of the ions of the heavy metals and radionuclides with the necessary pharmacological characteristics without side effects.

The practical significance of the project relates to its ultimate objective, that is, to provide the preventive medical preparations of natural origin for the removal of the toxic ions of the heavy metals and radionuclides out of a patient organism. The preparations will be widely utilized for preventive maintenance and treatment of the workers of mining enterprises, atomic power stations, chemical plants; the inhabitants of settlements close situated to the tailing ponds and dangerous zones; the injured in consequence of different kinds of nuclear-weapon tests and accidents. The results obtained in the course of the project fulfillment can be utilized for the development of ecologically safe and economically profitable technologies to provide new medicinal and industrial cellulose-based materials and for the recovery of valuable wastes of food-processing industry. The new compounds can find an application in a food-processing industry and technical chemistry. After the completion of the project involved it is expected to continue a following development cycle – a semi-industrial test, a handover of the results obtained to industrial enterprises.

The different profile researcher team formed and successfully cooperated earlier in the weapon activity connected with the theoretical and experimental research of kinetics and mechanism of nitration and oxidation reaction of cellulose and its derivatives in development of pyroxylin powders is expected to participate in the project fulfillment. The employees of Kyrgyz -Russian Slavonic University, Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics of RAS - potential participants of the project - are the highly qualified researchers with the wide experience of the activity in the field of the design of non-polluting and economically profitable technologies to obtain cellulose-based products and the determination of their physico-chemical properties.


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