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Decrease of Risk of Radioactive Impact on the Environment and Human

#KR-2017


Development of the Photonics Methods to Reduce the Risk of Radioactive Contamination of the Environment as a Result of Nuclear Enterprises Activity

Tech Area / Field

  • CHE-RAD/Photo and Radiation Chemistry/Chemistry
  • ENV-WDS/Waste Disposal/Environment
  • ENV-WPC/Water Pollution and Control/Environment
  • FIR-MOD/Modelling/Fission Reactors
  • INF-SOF/Software/Information and Communications
  • INS-MEA/Measuring Instruments/Instrumentation
  • PHY-OPL/Optics and Lasers/Physics

Status
3 Approved without Funding

Registration date
04.04.2012

Leading Institute
Institute of Physicotechnical Problems and Materials Science, Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek

Collaborators

  • Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA, VA, Blacksburg

Project summary

In recent times the territory of Kyrgyzstan was one of the main sources of natural uranium and rare-earth elements extraction for tsarist Russia and former Soviet Union.
Since 1907 the mines and the plants on uranium ores and rare-earth elements with thorium mineralization extraction and processing have operated in mountain and boundary regions of Kyrgyzstan. As a result of long usage of these enterprises the enormous quantity of radioactive waste remained on the earth’s surface as dumps and tail deposits. These tail storages were mainly located within the bounds of inhabited arrays, drainage areas, often just in the riverbeds and floodplains of transboundary rivers, streaming down over valleys across all Central Asia. After a collapse of the Soviet Union major tail deposits were deserted without any control. Storage conditions of radioactive waste are inconsistent with any requirements of ecological safety and pose a threat for the environment and human health.
The tail deposits of radioactive waste negatively influence the environment and human, and this fact should be studied in different aspects. First, natural water polluted by radionuclides and other toxic elements should be studied, second, the risk assessment in case of tail deposits destruction or violation, followed by disastrous ecological consequences of trasboundary scales.
The development of laser photonic methods and equipment will be used to study micro-nano-contact effects in disconnectors and for problems solution concerning interaction of solids with rough surface. These methods and equipment are necessary to solve an important practical problem – disconnectors life time extension in elements of nuclear power plants constructions, and radioactive materials safe storage and transport. It is known that some accidents at atomic power stations in Russia, Canada, France, USA, and Germany occurred due to upper reactor unit disconnectors seal failure. It was established that a disaster of the spaceship “Challenger” was also connected with a disconnector seal failure.
At contact bodies load a micro-relief of rough surface in a zone of their touch irreversibly changes even at macroelastic contact. The micro-relief changes comprise important information of contact surface parameters interacting under the bodies load and at contact pressures distribution.
Goal of the project:
The purpose of the project is a consolidation effort for study of the threats of radioactive contamination, development and introducing the new physical methods for reduction of the risk of the nuclear waste on environment and human
Technical approach and methodology
The development of atomic energy has required intensive operation a mine and combines, realized mining and conversion of uranium ore. As a result of activity these enterprise was formed huge quantity of the nuclear waste on surfaces of the ground, in mouldboard and storage. This storage often exists on riverbed and flood plain pool of the rivers. After decay USSR condition of storage of the nuclear waste often do not be up to quality and rule to ecological safety. Particularly great for environments and health of the population threat, connected with risk of the destruction or breaches to hermeticities of the compactions vault nuclear waste storage.
The similar danger accompanies with functioning the nucleus energy installations. The number accidents for atomic power stations in Russia, Canada, France, USA and Germany have occurred by destroed upper nuclear block connection. It is installed that catastrophe of the space shuttle "Chelendzher" happened by reason of the compaction joining destroy.
The study degree of joining construction reliability within the framework of project will use phenomena laser micro- and nano- photonics: double-exposure holographic and digital-speckle interferometer. These phenomena bring about decorrelation restored light waves and laser speckle structures. Those changes lead to the contrast of carrying interference strips chaining that allows to get information on reliability of the joining construction. Alongside with use carrying interference strips for visualization of the contact surfaces is planned use the different circuits of the subtraction of the images. This physical phenomenon lies at the base of methods under development within the framework of persisting project.
Beside, the authors of the project plan to use the optical spectral analysis and α- γ-spectrometry methods for determination of the contents heavy metals, arsenic and isotopes of the uranium row.
Expected results:
As a result of project will be designed noncontact laser methods of the ensuring to safety and reliability of the joining construction of the nuclear energy installation, systems of radioactive materials storage and transportation.
Within the framework of project will be explored radionuclide, chemical and element composition of water, coast ground and bottom of the Kara-Balta river in district Kirghiz Kara-Balta Mining uranium combine.
Role of collaborators:
The work on the project will be implemented at active cooperation with foreign collaborators. The cooperation with foreign collaborators will be presented as joint workshops and seminars, publications and conferences reports, scientific and technical information exchange, advertising, international certification, introduction and commercialization of obtained results. The preparation to work in pointed direction is being constantly conducted.
Tasks:
1. Study of carrier fringes contrast change depending on roughness value, material hardness, and contact pressures (fundamental researches).
2. Measuring contact surfaces by methods of coherent optics (applied researches).
3. Measuring contact pressures by coherent-optical methods.
4. Large-scale researches of uranium, radium, radon and heavy metals distribution in ecological situation of region under study.
5. Database creation on ecological state of separate sites and objects in region under study.
6. Creation of mathematical model of separate toxic elements transport , which pollute the environment.
Planned work is agreed with the ISTC purposes because the project provides for researches connected with the assessment and consequent development of recommendations for prevention of aftermaths against hazardous technologies, negatively impacting the environment.


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The International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) is an intergovernmental organization connecting scientists from Kazakhstan, Armenia, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Georgia with their peers and research organizations in the EU, Japan, Republic of Korea, Norway and the United States.

 

ISTC facilitates international science projects and assists the global scientific and business community to source and engage with CIS and Georgian institutes that develop or possess an excellence of scientific know-how.

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