Aerosol and Climate
Climatic effects of Central Asia Microscale Aerosols
Tech Area / Field
- ENV-APC/Air Pollution and Control/Environment
- OBS-NAT/Natural Resources and Earth Sciences/Other Basic Sciences
- PHY-OPL/Optics and Lasers/Physics
8 Project completed
Senior Project Manager
Kyrgyz-Russian Slavonic University, Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek
- Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft / Institut für Technische Chemie Bereich Wasser- und Geotechnologie, Germany, Karlsruhe\nUniversity of Iowa, USA, IA, Iowa City\nUniversité des Sciences et Technologies de Lille / Laboratoire d'Optique Atmospherique, France, Lille
Project summaryThe purpose of the project is research of influence of micro-scale aerosol on radiation transfer for estimation of climatic changes in the Central Asia.
Current status. At current time in the Central Asia microphysical and optical properties of submicronic and coarse aerosol fractions are studied in detail enough. As to microdisperse fraction – nano-aerosol, formed from gas phase and defining start to all aerosol process, data on its behavior in atmosphere are incomplete and rather inconsistent owing to what it is impossible to make a full picture about contribution of aerosol to atmospheric processes.
By authors of the proposed project it is established that dust storms and salt carrying out, and also transboundary transport of sulphates from Europe, Russia and Kazakhstan, regional transport of sulphates from Fergana valley to the Central Asia contain a considerable quantity of nano-aerosol. The particles of black carbon mixed with dust and sulphates, make a basis of Atmospheric Brown clouds (АВС). The radiative effect of the layer containing particles of nano-aerosol, essentially exceeds effect of a layer with larger particles. Thus additional heating of such layer leads to increase of stability of atmosphere, that is to reduction of probability of development of cloud formation process and to increase of level of condensation. Thus, while greenhouse effect is the main problem of global climate change, nano-aerosol can be one of primary factors of regional climate change and reduction of regional and global amount of precipitation.
The project’ influence on progress in this area. It will be established, how presence of nano-aerosol can essentially change radiation fluxes in the atmosphere and on underlying surface that is influencing a climate of atmosphere and underlying surface. Thus possibility of reception of vertical profiles of physical properties of nano-aerosol with the help of lidar will allow lowering that uncertainty which arises at calculations of radiative forcing. Fundamental basis for researches on influence of nano-aerosol on people health and hydrological cycle, in particular, on melting of glaciers of Central Asia also will be created.
The participants’ expertise. The science group includes experts in optical methods of research of physical and optical properties of atmospheric aerosol and statistical regularities in processes of distribution of aerosol pollution, in theoretical and numerical methods of physics and chemistry of atmosphere, methods of research of formation of atmospheric aerosols at various heights, interactions of sunlight with aerosol.
Expected results and their application. As a result of project performance the essential step in research of micro-scale aerosol–radiation interaction will be made for reception of quantitative estimations of influence of nano-aerosol on climatic variability of the Central Asia.
Meeting the ISTC goals and objectives. The basic executors of the project were weapon-scientists in various areas.
Participation in the project will allow this scientists group to use scientific ideas, technical development and experience, received at realization of works on military area, for developing of peace technology directed on formation of environment monitoring system and effective using of natural resources.
Scope of activities. The following activities will be implemented under the Project:
In-situ measurements of optical and microphysical characteristics of nano - and micro-scale aerosols at of pollution transport to the Central Asia;
Selection of calculation methods and numerical calculations execution of micro-scale aerosol radiative forcing (MARF);
Numerical calculations of heating (cooling) rate of atmospheric layers at micro-scale aerosol pollution carrying out to the region;
Estimations of micro-scale aerosol pollution influence on climatic variability of the region.
Role of Foreign Collaborators/Partners. Collaborators of the project are prof. Gregory R. Carmichael (University of Iowa, USA), prof. Philippe Goloub from AERONET/PHOTONS (Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, France), Dr. Peter G. Weidler (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT, Institute of Functional Interfaces IFG, Germany), which will take part in preparation of the proposal and Work Plan.
Final and Annual reports of the project will be sent for comments to foreign collaborators. Results of joint researches will be presented in joint publications.
Technical approach and methodology. The methodology of the project is based on carrying out of monitoring of micro-scale transport to territory of Central Asia from various sources by means of created within the framework of ISTC project #KR-1522 measuring complex for joint lidar and photometric measurements at Lidar Station Teplokluchenka.
Also the technique of temperature restoration using lidar backscattering signal will be developed and introduced.
Technical indicators of lidar system will provide regular measurements under the project program according to the tasks.
Aerosol characteristics measurements at Field experimental base of IAO-CA will be carried out also by means of CIMEL and Microtops II Sunphotometers (content in atmospheric column) and TEOM/FDMS instruments (in ground-level layer), measurements of total ozone by means of Microtops II Ozonometer.
In-situ measurements within the framework of the Task 1 are the basic component of the measurements program. The task provides reception of the regular data about optical and microphysical characteristics of aerosol and vertical profiles of temperature. The measurements data will be used, first of all, for the solution of the project primary goal - estimations of Nanoaerosols influence on climatic variability.
Air sampling by means of filters for the subsequent analysis of aerosol structure, identification and determination of sources of aerosol is also planned. Filters will be saved for the subsequent chemical analysis in cooperation with Dr. Peter G. Weidler (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT, Institute of Functional Interfaces IFG, Germany).
Measurements of total ozone will be carried out by means of MICROTOPS II Ozonometer.
Results of realization of the Task 1 will supplement the basic part of the database. Lidar sensing are planned to be carried out in parallel with CIMEL measurements. At data analysis stage the additional meteorological information, calculations of backward and direct trajectories of air masses transport, data of satellite observation will be used.
Modeling is planned to carry out of numerical calculations of aerosol radiative forcing (Task 2). The radiation data and aerosol optical thicknesses measured with the help of lidar and photometers will be processed.
Measurements data of spectral transparency and indicatrix of sky brightness by CIMEL sun photometer will allow to restore spectral dependences of single scattering albedo ω(λ) and average cosine of scattering indicatrix (asymmetry parameter)
Then using the restored dependences of (), g(), ω() an inverse problem of light scattering will be solved and the following microphysical parameters of aerosol: function of particles size distribution f(D) and complex refraction index of aerosol will be determined for atmospheric layers.
Methodology of direct and indirect ARF developed within the framework of the project #KR-1522 will be accepted as a basis of ARF calculations and will be applied to episodes of transboundary and long-range pollution transport.
Technique, developed for network of observatories UNEP/NOAA in Southern Asia "Aerosol-Chemistry-Climate" where Lidar Station KRSU is included, taking into account features of the Asian region and the equipment on measuring sites of network will be basis of the methodology of calculation of atmospheric layers heating or cooling rate (Task 3).
By the developed methodology, calculations will be carried out on the basis of measurements of radiative characteristics and optical parameters of aerosol within the framework of the Task 1, database of lidar and spectral radiation measurements at pollution transport with Small-Scale particles.
The results received in tasks 1, 2 and 3 are used for solution of Task 4.
By results of restoration troposphere temperature by lidar method and calculations of heating (or cooling) rate of various atmospheric layers will be established the assessments of change atmosphere and surface climate at transport of Small-Scale particles to the Central Asia from various sources.
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