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Problems of Catastrophe Protection

#0372


Investigation of a Complex of Scientific and Technical Problems on Protection Against Seismic Effects, Air Shock Wave, Penetrating Radiation and Electromagnetic Effects Influencing on the High-Ecological Danger Enterprises of National Economy...

Tech Area / Field

  • FIR-NSS/Nuclear Safety and Safeguarding/Fission Reactors

Status
3 Approved without Funding

Registration date
08.02.1995

Leading Institute
NIIIT (Pulse Techniques), Russia, Moscow

Project summary

Problems on protection of enviroment in the case of emergencies and natural or technogenic catastrophes at the special facilities and national - economy enterprises with high ecological danger , such as atomic power plants, enterprises with radiation and highly-explosive enterprises products can be solved through the investigation of principles of detection system design and development of methods for technical implementation of detection systems and ways of their application to decrease the extent of ecological danger. The present Project considers the problems of development and usage of systems for detection danger of effects under extreme conditions of earthquakes, high levels of atomic radiation, effects of air shock wave and electromagnetic radiation.

The well-known systems are oriented only to measurement of parameters and characteristics of the working agents for technological cycles of high-danger enterprises and production facilities.

The major objectives of the Project are:

- development of physical principles and methodical basis of fastresponse automatic systems for early detection dangerous influences due to natural or technogenic catastrophes (accidents) to equip high-ecologically dangerous objects: NPP, waste nuclear fuel storehouses, other technological objects of nuclear industry;

- study of feasibility of system hardware components development for specific object - Armenia NPP.

During the work, as a technical basis of it may be used results of research and development works (R&D) previously obtained by enterprises-participants of the Project.

The system may generally consist of the following parts:

- sensors for registration or intensity measerement of different nature physical fields (with taking into account ourstriping measuring information detection physical preimpulses of danger influences );

- devices for date acquision, processing;

- computer hardware & software for solution of analitical and/or calculation problems including those to forecast of post-accident situation insite and in neighboring area;

- means for interfacing (consisting devices) with adjacent system of object;

- intergral means for self-checking of the system;

- means of autonomic electric power supply.

Information coming from sensors primary is processed in accordance with given algoriphm and transferred for object techno-logical systems in accorded form, in particular, being interfaced, with NPP Instrumentation and Control (I&C) system.

The key problem consists in developing principles of creating detection systems for dangerous effects under uncertain location in space the probable source of destractive effects. Of great impotence is the definition of criteria for selecting response thresholds and dynamic range (by each of enfluencing factors ) with variety of objects topology and conditions in their location as well as different levels of effect, systems (instrumention complexes ) to detect dangerous effects in natural or technogenic catastrophy (emergencies) and equip the objects with high ecological danger.

The main problems are associated with providing such features of the system as:

- reliability of physical factors;

- semispherical diagram of receiving physical factors by sensor means;

- high sensibylity of the apparatus with minimum quantity of faulty actuations and wide dynamic range;

- fast-response providing output signals to the control system of the object protection before a factor of danger arrives to the object and associated maximum possible distance (upto 2 km) of the sensors (detectors) from the data collection and processing center;

- high reliability (failure-proof probability not less then 0. 9) during long life service;

- capability to continue functioning in extreme conditions.

So the ecpected results of Project is creation of scientific and methodical basis to develop a new class complex systems of early dangerous influence detection, first of all, the seismic overloads (earthquake), the air shock waves (hurricanes) with levels dangerous for the people life and technological equipment and civil structures. Example for Armenia NPP situated into danger seismic area it is assume to use in the detection system of sensors registratting electromagnetic preimpulse, wich is outstrip seismic influention.

These systems developed with the use of advanced technologies will make possible to decrease risk of the object operation and enhance the level of safety of the high-ecological dangerous industrial facilities.

In investigation on the Project elaboration variants of apparatus realization of system components applying to Armenia NPP is carried out with participation specialists from Yerevan Physics Institute and Armenia NPP.

It is supposed participation in Project speciaists invited for problems of their competence of following organizations:

Engineering Center of Strength-Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering, Ministry for Atomic Energy (ECS MAE RDIPE);

Ail-Russian Research Institute of Nuclear Power Plant Operation (VNIIAES),c. Moscow;

Atomtechenergy, c. Moscow; Armenia Atomic Electrostation (ANPP), Republic Armenia.

The scientific and technical decisions obtained in the process of Project carrying-out can be used to set a special commercial international organisation for development of such detection systems with inpidual characteristics.


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