Study of Sheep Genetic Structure in Kyrgyzstan
Tech Area / Field
- BIO-CGM/Cytology, Genetics and Molecular Biology/Biotechnology
3 Approved without Funding
National Academy of Sciences of Kyrgyzstan / Biotechnology Institution, Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek
- University of Wyoming / Department of Animal Science, USA, WY, Laramie
Project summaryPreservation and rational use of genetic resources of farm animals, particularly of sheep, requires deep scientific provision being a problem of global human concern. The active scientific searches for preservation and rational use of not only cultural breeds but in particular local species and breeds produced on the basis of natural selection and national selection proves that.
Sheep breeding is a traditional branch of animal industries in Kyrgyzstan. The local sheep with good adaptive abilities, have been produced on the territory of the country for centuries.
Project Objective: defining genetic nature of the breeds under the production, possibilities and needs for preservation and use of local sheep.
The Project tasks include:
- Studying genetic variety, genetic and phenotypic properties and the behavior of forming local herds and breeds of sheep at the background of creating the collection herds and their monitoring, defining economic foundations for breeding;
- Assay of a genome structure for local breeds using DNA-technologies;
- Studying immune and genetic properties of the sheep under the production, assessment of their similarity and difference, watching the progress of microevolution;
- Development of gamete and embryo cryobanks for rare and disappearing animals. Creation of a collection in cryobank;
- Creation of computer data bank of sheep genetic resources in Kyrgyzstan;
- Establishment of a National Centre for Preservation of Sheep Genetic Resources.
Good adaptive properties of these breeds served as a basis for producing all cultural breeds existing in the republic. At all-the-year-round pasture keeping, these animals are most stable to a number of infectious and invasion diseases. The exploitation of local breeds and their hybrids under the current conditions for establishing small farms, is acquiring some advantage, in spite of the productivity loss.
But the situation with local animals causes certain concern. Quick reduction of the number of farm animals, including sheep, for the last decade of the past century, has now a reverse tendency. There is an active spontaneous crossing of all breeds. The choice of breeds for cultivation is important, but it should be supported by sufficient study from the point of view of potential genetic abilities of the animals.
The urgency of loss and preservation of local sheep breeds being of particular genetic value requires animal gatherings into collection groups and herds. At that point it is needed to develop scientific bases for preservation of gene pool using contemporary methods in biotechnology.
In this connection the study of genetic structure of extremely valuable disappearing species and populations of animals (sheep) bred in the extreme conditions of mountainous ecosystems of Tien-Shan, requires the use of not only morphological methods to study pheno-genotype of animals but the use of a number of biochemical, immunological techniques and the use of new base of marker-testing and computerization of the data either.
When conducting the study of genetic persity of sheep the following is essential:
- To identify regions of rare sheep breeds; select and establish groups of the sheep for the research
- To conduct morphological and immunological research of animal blood to define the marker systems;
- On the DNA-based technology to identify aborigine breeds to be able to see the similarity and difference compared to other breeds in the region and make useful the identified gene pool for future needs.
- Employ cryoconcervation methods and использование gamete and embryos to establish cryo-bank.
- To create a digital Data Base of sheep gene pool of the Kyrgyz Republic
The study of the structure of aborigine sheep of the Kyrgyz Republic compared to other breeds will be a contribution to a world Data Base which is actively developing in many other countries.
For the Kyrgyz Republic this study is vital due to growing interest in meat industry. The goal of this study is to develop the Genome Database for future scientific selection of rare breeds and to make this industry attractive for international investments.: The research materials will be he basis for creation of gene pool center for sheep in Kyrgyzstan
The International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) is an intergovernmental organization connecting scientists from Kazakhstan, Armenia, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Georgia with their peers and research organizations in the EU, Japan, Republic of Korea, Norway and the United States.
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