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Biomonitoring of radioactive objects

#K-2273


Development of methodology for creation of biological monitoring sites for radioactively hazardous objects

Tech Area / Field

  • BIO-RAD/Radiobiology/Biotechnology
  • ENV-EHS/Environmental Health and Safety/Environment

Status
3 Approved without Funding

Registration date
09.02.2016

Leading Institute
National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakstan / Institute of Radiation Safety and Ecology, Kazakstan, Kurchatov

Collaborators

  • Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Germany, Jülich

Project summary

One of negative effects of industrial sector development is fatal entry of entire gamut of contaminates into environment. So in case of nuclear power engineering release of artificial radionuclides takes place. Therefore an integral part of nuclear energy is radiation environmental monitoring. As a rule, this monitoring includes operations as follows: air monitoring, system of hydrogeological boreholes and periodic environmental sampling (for example, of soil or plants). Biomonitoring sites are actually groups of plants of some definite species composition, used for continuous radiation control of associated environments – soil, water and air basin. So, for example, the plants having well-developed root system in addition to surface contamination of soil cover, can indicate content of radionuclides in both deep soil layers, and ground waters of the territory under control. At that unlike hygrogeological boreholes, plants can both indicate radiation situation at the present moment, and provide integral assessment for the period passed. The project presents a perspective in this respect object of observation – groups of plants of definite floristic composition, constituting biomonitoring sites, able to characterize radioloigical situation for a definite period of time, associated with the lifetime of both inpidual plants and their inpidual organs.
So the main aim of the proposed Project is development of methodology for creating sites for biomonitoring of radiation- hazardous objects.
To achieve the goal different biogeocenoses, characterized by longstanding radioactive contamination and principally different content in plants will be chosen. The most suitable site for these researches is the former «Degelen» site at the territory of the former Semipalatinsk test Site (STS). Results of specification researches, have been carried out in 2009-2012, have shown take out of radionuclide and some chemical elements with surface and ground waters beyond «Degelen» site.
To reveal the ratio and mechanisms of radionuclides redistribution in inpidual components of each inpidual biogeocenosis the character of radionuclides distribution in water, soil, plants and air will be analyzed. For this purpose field works will be carried out including the following steps: drilling hydrogeoilogical boreholes, location of soil profiles with layer wise soil sampling and periodical environmental sampling (water (surface and ground), air (atmospheric and soil), plants). In collected samples of water, plants and air specific activity of 3Н will be determined, in soil, vegetation and water samples – 137Cs, 90Sr, 241Am and 239+240Pu, as well as elemental composition, including elements-analogs and stable isotopes will be determined. Also analyses for determining physical and chemical properties of soils and speciations of radionuclides in them will be carried out. Therefore the main tasks of the Project will be the following:
1. Analysis of character of radionuclides distribution in inpidual components of biogeocenoses.
1.1. Determination of quantitative data on radionuclides content in inpidual components of biogeocenoses.
1.2. Assessment of radionuclides ratio values in inpidual components of biogeocenoses.
2. Research of mechanisms of radionuclides transfer in components of biogeocenoses.
2.1. Research of dynamics of radionuclides concentrations in components of biogeocenoses.
2.2. Reveal of character of redistribution of radionuclides in inpidual organs of plants (vegetative and generative).
3. Creation of biological sites of monitoring.
3.1. Selection of plants from natural biogeocenoses.
3.2. Determination of additional species of plants.
As a result of researches plants most completely indicating one or another radiological situation will be found, optimal organs (generative, vegetative) will be chosen for researches as well as periodicity of observations. Therefrom a methodology will be developed to create biominitoring sites for radiation-hazardous objects.


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