Technology of Sawdust Products
Development of Manufacturing Technique and Characteristics Study of Products, Made of Sawdust without Using Binding Materials
Tech Area / Field
- MAN-MAT/Engineering Materials/Manufacturing Technology
3 Approved without Funding
VNIIEF, Russia, N. Novgorod reg., Sarov
- Fraunhofer Institut fuer Holzforschung / Wilhelm Klauditz Institut, Germany, Braunschweig\nLos Alamos National Laboratory, USA, NM, Los-Alamos
Project summaryThe goal of the Project is to develop a manufacturing technique and to study the characteristics of the products maid of waste wood and lignified phytogenic wastes without using binding materials. Project work results will stimulate the wide implementation of environmentally appropriate manufacturing technique of waste wood products, required both for industrial production and for every day life.
The Project will result in development and substantiation of engineering process of manufacturing of environmentally appropriate waste wood products.
Modern woods occupy about 5 milliard hectares of dry land. Only in Russia mass logging and processing is associated with waste products accumulation up to 300 million cubic meters per year. Moreover, in southern regions of Russia such lignified phytogenic wastes as husk and stalks of sunflower, ear remains, fiber crops wastes, rice straw etc. are being accumulated in large quantities. Part of these wastes is used in biochemical industry during production of nutrient yeast and furfurals. In spite of the fact that these wastes, including the wastes of biochemical plants, are valuable and not expensive, in most cases the majority of them are not utilized, they are outcast and decompose in the open air, contaminating the environment.
Currently a small part of these wastes (not more than 20%) is used for producing some constructional materials, most widespread of which are fiber and wood chipboards. However all output materials are produced using binding materials. In some cases, the binding materials contain dangerous components both for environment and for a human being, such as, for instance, the widely used binding materials based on urea-formaldehyde and phenol-formaldehyde resins.
Early works on manufacturing of timber-based plastics led to the attempts of wood “melting” at temperatures 800-900 °C and turning it into a single-piece wood-pulp, breaking the woo structure. In further woks there was made an assumption that the components of wood cellular wall are combined into a single ligno-carbon complex, the chemical activity of which under certain conditions enable formation of new ligno-carbon couplings both inside the separate particle and between the neighboring wood particles. Firm and water-resistant ligno-carbon wood plastic (LCWP) is the result of formation of new couplings between the touching particles.
Chemistry of different parts of wood and lignified phytogenic remains is not the same. These distinctions should be taken into account during LCWP manufacturing parameters optimization. However, such works were not developed and later were neglected. The authors of the project consider that the main factor which limits the development of ecologically sound direction of wood wastes processing is the absence of fundamental study and scientific substantiation of the technological process as well as data on competitive technologies, in which the binding materials are used. Moreover, it is essential to have data on the received product properties, their changing under different conditions.
The problem of optimization of LCWP manufacturing parameters is important and complex and may be a subject of several consecutive projects. The present project should be devoted to the study of manufacturing technique parameters of LCWP, made of hard- and softwood wastes. It should be added that all wood wastes can be turned into sawdust by means of simple mechanisms.
Within the frames of the Project the following problems should be studied:
- determination of all necessary characteristics of initial product (wood wastes) preparation for pressing: dispersion, humidity, existence of rotten components, soft and hardwood, etc.;
- study of pressing conditions: pressure, temperature, curing time;
- determination of heat insulation and sound-proof properties of obtained materials;
- study of produced items strength properties: compression, flexion and fracture strength;
- revelation of factors affecting strength properties: environment humidity and temperature;
- study of manufactured products characteristics fluctuations time dependence (artificial ageing).
Due to low cost of raw materials utilization of waste wood for pollution-free production is economically sound and facilitates the solution of environmental problems:
- it increases the use of wastes, which contaminate the environment;
- reduces wood cutting;
- extends the number of environmentally appropriate materials.
RFNC-VNIIEF personal has got great experience in technological processes development in various fields of science. Project authors and executive staff are mostly highly skilled specialists in technology development area.
The works under the project will create a base for a long-term cooperation, which will result in wide application of the developed technologies in woodworking industry all over the world.
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