Nanotechnology for Fabrication Films with Specified Properties
Development of Competitive Nanotechnologies for Production and Modification of Nano- and Micro-Sized Particles and Deposition of Films with Specified Properties
Tech Area / Field
- MAT-SYN/Materials Synthesis and Processing/Materials
- INF-ELE/Microelectronics and Optoelectronics/Information and Communications
3 Approved without Funding
Tbilisi State University / Institute of Physics (Ge), Georgia, Tbilisi
- University of Missouri-Columbia / Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, USA, MO, Columbia\nHochschule für Wissenschaften Hamburg, Germany, Hamburg\nNagoya Institute of Technology, Japan, Nagoya\nRoosevelt University, USA, IL, Chicago
Project summaryKey words: nanotechnology, nanoelectronics, corrosion- and wear resistance, conversion of solar energy, photocatalysts, composites.
1. Competitive nano– and film technologies for fabrication of nanoparticles, multilayer composite materials consisting of nanoparticles, deposition of quantum dots with specified properties on high-dispersive powder-like particles and surface modification of bulk and film materials with the aim of production of nanodevices, promising photocatalysts, simultaneous increase in wear resistance, corrosion resistance and temperature stability will be developed in the framework of the Project.
The cost of the nanotechnology will be significantly reduced and the production process will be simplified by using cost-effective methods and the equipment will be simplified. Some problems of the nanotechnology will be overcome owing to fabrication of nanocrystals having the desired properties.
The project will also allow the development of new methods of nano-plating and fabrication of composites using proprietary technologies.
2. Conversion of light energy, production of photocatalysts.
New methods will be elaborated for production of effective photocatalysts with the aim of enhancing the quantum efficiency of conversion of light energy, splitting of water and decomposition of toxic pollutants.
The some problems of conversion of solar energy and photocatalysts production will be overcome by in particular, novel electroless deposition impregnation and chemical metal ion implantation methods, formation of quantum dots on nano- and micro-sized particles and bulk materials; fabrication of films with specified properties; development of new methods of fabrication of photocatalysts with quantum dots having specified structure and composition. Besides, the new method of size selection of pure TiO2 particles and of micro, meso- and nanocrystal-coated powder-like semiconductor photocatalysts with the aim of production of photocatalysts with uniform particle size distribution will be developed.
3. The objective of improvement of corrosion resistance and wear resistance of the coatings will be achieved on the base of electroless and electrochemical deposition of metals and alloys (for example on the basis on Ni, W and B) having of high hardness, high wear- and corrosion resistance and temperature stability.
The proposed methods will provide deposition of coatings with uniformed thickness and specified properties on complex-shaped substrates, including inner surfaces and allow us to eliminate the use of toxic and carcinogenic substances.
This possibility is very important for ecology, as over the last 10 years hexavalent chromium has been recognized as highly toxic and carcinogenic. Toxic chemicals – chromic acid and cyanides will not be used in the proposed technology. Owing to these advantages, many problems of the wear resistance increase can be overcome, especially when liquid lubricants are not used, e.g. in space techniques, in ultra-high vacuum, at high temperature, in electric contacts, etc.
The objective of the Project is overcoming of some problems in the abovementioned fields:
- conversion of light energy, fabrication of photocatalysts;
- simultaneous improvement of corrosion resistance, wear resistance and temperature stability, and at the same time elimination of application of carcinogenic hexavalent chromium, which is widely used for this purpose at present.
We shall only dwell on a few problems of the abovementioned fields, which are expected to be overcome on the basis of the proposed Project.
1. The problems of nanotechnology:
- High cost and difficulty in implementation of nanotechnology.
- Complexity of the equipment.
- Difficulty in fabrication of quantum dots on nano-, meso-, and mocro-sized particles.
- Difficulty in deposition of continuous thin films and films with given porosity and specified properties on fine-grained particles and bulk materials.
2. The problems of conversion of solar energy and of production of photocatalysts:
- Recombination of the photoexcited electrons and holes.
- Simultaneous proceeding of oxidation and reduction reactions at the same sites of photoelectrodes.
- Low quantum efficiency of energy conversion.
- The possibility of using efficiently the low energetical visible-light irradiation. It is worth noting that the visible spectrum makes up 47 % in the sunlight, while high-energetical UV waves (usually used at present) make up only 4 % in the sunlight.
Thus the topicality of solution of this problem by shifting the maximum (peak) of absorbance spectra of photocatalists to the visible spectral region using the deposition of nanocrystals on photocatalists (which is proposed in this project) is evident.
3. The problems related to the improvement of corrosion resistance and wear resistance are the following: I. Simultaneous improvement in corrosion- and wear resistance and temperature stability. II. Elimination of the use of liquid lubricants for rubbing surfaces in space engineering, ultrahigh vacuum, at high temperature and in electric contacts. III. Elimination of the use of toxic and carcinogenic substances, for example carcinogenic hexavalent chromium, cyanides and others.
It is expected that the abovementioned problems will be overcome (at least mitigation) in the framework of the Project:
4. Besides, there will be developed competitive method of fabrication of ultra-thin magnetic and non-magnetic multilayer films on powder-like particles and bulk materials, what are especially attractive for future applications in high-density magnetic recording, etc. Such films are promising for a wide range of applications.
One of the participants earlier engaged in the defense industry will prepare the thesis for achieving a scientific degree in the field of civil techniques in the framework of the Project.
Relevant prior work has been carried out by the participants of the proposed Project.
The methods of surface treatment of various materials developed under the leadership of Project Manager Prof. T. Khoperia were implemented in defense industry in the fields of space engineering; remote fuses; antimissile units; hydroacoustic devices; transportation devices of mass destruction weapons; aircraft gyroscopes, etc. For developments in defense industry, microelectronics and space engineering Project Manager Prof T. Khoperia (Active Member of the Electrochemical Society of USA and the American Electroplaters and Surface Finishers Society, AESF) was awarded two gold medals and other governmental awards of the former USSR. The abovementioned technologies will be improved for civil techniques as a result of the Project implementation. Application of the Project results in manufacture of civil products will be promising.
In the framework of ISTC Project G-782, by the participants of the proposed Project, there were investigated the mechanisms of sensitization and activation of dielectric materials prior to electroless metallization.
The mechanism of hypophosphite oxidation reaction and nickel ion reduction by electroless method was investigated.
The photometric method of investigation of tin and palladium ions adsorption was elaborated.
Kinetic regularities of the sodium hypophosphite decomposition and nickel ion electroless reduction reactions were studied.
The process of fabrication of ohmic contacts on silicon by electroless deposition of a Ni-P alloy was studied.
The method of deposition of current – conducting sulfide film on plastics with subsequent electroplating was developed.
The obtained results provided high adhesion of electrolessly deposited coatings to polished dielectrics (that had been a problem earlier).
Metallographic investigations of the Ni-P alloy were carried out.
The method of electroless nickel deposition on ceramics without using palladium chloride activation was elaborated.
Some factors affecting the electrical resistivity of the Ni-P alloy were investigated.
The invention of reproduction of printed multicolored pictures on a transparent substrate was proposed.
The Chapters of the Monograph dealing with the substitution of Au and Ag by electrolessly deposited Ni alloys were prepared for publication. Thus, a unique scientific-engineering basis was provided and the experience was gained for fulfillment of a new Project.
There were obtained interesting results for the deposition of metal cluster on powder-like TiO2 particles with the aim of their application in photocatalysts. Expansion of these investigations in the framework of the proposed new Project will be promising.
The abovementioned technologies will be significantly improved and their applications will be widely extended as a result of the implementation of the new Project.
The risk of failing to fulfill the suggested project is minimal. The arguments for such categorical assertion are the results of successful preliminary investigations and professional skills of the Project participants, the experience of participants in implementation of the obtained results in the defense and civil industry (in aerospace techniques, in production of devices for submarines, TV sets and computer techniques).
The International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) is an intergovernmental organization connecting scientists from Kazakhstan, Armenia, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Georgia with their peers and research organizations in the EU, Japan, Republic of Korea, Norway and the United States.
ISTC facilitates international science projects and assists the global scientific and business community to source and engage with CIS and Georgian institutes that develop or possess an excellence of scientific know-how.