Hydrogen and Thermolysis gas production by use of energy of idle water flow
Conversion of the idle water discharges from reservoirs to the Hydrogen production by electrolysis and the thermolysis gas from hydrocarbons and coals
Tech Area / Field
- ENV-EHS/Environmental Health and Safety/Environment
- FIR-FUE/Reactor Fuels and Fuel Engineering/Fission Reactors
- FUS-HSF/Hybrid Systems and Fuel Cycle/Fusion
- NNE-FCN/Fuel Conversion/Non-Nuclear Energy
8 Project completed
Senior Project Manager
Algiyev S K
Tajik National University, Tajikistan, Dushanbe
- Tosoh SMD, Inc., USA, OH, Grove City
Project summaryThe project aim. The project will develop technology for producing hydrogen by electrolysis and thermolysis gas from hydrocarbons and coals using energy idle discharges of water from reservoirs
Current status. Hydrogen power has always been at the center of research in leading scientific centers of the world. Rapid development of researches of this area come to 60th – 70th years of last century when intensive researches on synthesis of energycapacity substances on base metal - hydrogen composition known in chemistry as Hydride of metals widely applied as a component of rocket fuel were conducted.
Hydrogen energy is an alternative to traditional energy of organic fuels. Fossil fuel reserves in the Central Asian region is more or less stable. Currently, however, of all mineral fuels widely used natural gas. Total reserves of natural gas in the region is about 3.5 Bln. t and oil reserves of more than one Bln. t of equivalent fuel. A similar situation exists in the coal industry; the region has an inexhaustible reserve of coal about 4 Bln. t of equivalent fuel. The presence of rich deposits of fossil fuels in a number of countries in Central Asia have contributed to the development of enterprises for the production of heat and electricity using mainly fossil fuels.
Now one of the most urgent problems of modernity is global climate change. Obviously that in the trend of climate change is a key factor is concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Emissions of air pollutants in Central Asia mainly consist of suspended solids (35 %), SO2 (31 %), CO2 (14%) and nitrogen oxide (10%).
Environmental problem and the reduction of the dynamics of global warming stimulate research for define of alternative and clean energy resources. In this respect, hydrogen energy can be considered as a potential contender to fill the energy sector with a cheaper and cleaner fuel. Moreover, the main raw material for the production of hydrogen is water.
The total hydropower resources of the Central Asia is estimated 460 Bln. kW•h per year. Currently used only 10 % of total capacity. The main volume of regional hydroelectric potential is concentrated in Tajikistan (69%) and approximately 22 % in Kyrgyzstan.
It is know that in the summer due to the large volume of river flow all hydropower plants in Tajikistan carried idle discharge excess water. According to the information of the Holding Company "Barqi Tojik», the idle discharge of water from the cascade hydropower plant on the Vakhsh River today is 600 m3 per second. Moreover, this process continues each year in three months (early July - end of September). A simple calculation shows that every summer idle discharge volume of excess water is more than 4.5 Bln. m3, which is almost half of the project value of the Nurek reservoir (10.5 km3). The total amount of single dumping of water from reservoirs of Tajikistan in 2012 made on an electric power equivalent more than 6 Bln. kWt∙h.
Thermolysis of high molecular weight hydrocarbons and coal is one of the effective ways to accumulate excess has not found commercial demand of electricity generated hydroelectric. During thermolysis coal produces 20 to 30 % of high-quality fuel gas, which is highly requested by our country. One of the major consumers of gas fuel is TALCO (Tajik Aluminum Company). In connection with the termination of the supply of natural gas from Uzbekistan, this company began producing generator gas from coal. However, this gas being low-calorie does not meet the technological requirements for use in the preparation of baked anodes.
Technology that is the subject of research in this project Translation excess electricity to gas fuel will solve the issues of much domestic gas production. In addition, to coal thermolysis can get high-quality natural gas and fuel from waste that remain unsolicited now and are a source of environmental pollution. According to our preliminary data up to 160 kg of gas can obtained by thermolysis of the polymer polyethylene terephthalate. Thus, directing excess electricity and coal processing polymeric materials, we can mitigate to some extent the problem of shortage of gas fuel in Tajikistan.
This project offers two options, which certainly is not limited in scope, and other approaches to addressing electricity savings, based on the transfer of electricity in the fuel gas and the conversion of electricity into hydrogen fuel. The approaches listed in the project proposal and presented at the ISTC seminar in Almaty (2013) received the support of ISTC SAC.
Influence of the project on progress in the field. After full completion of the volume of works planned in the project, the scientific basis and technology of use of unclaimed energy of water from reservoirs during the summer period will be developed for production of ecological clear fuel-Hydrogen. It will be developed scenarios and recommendations on wide use of green energy based on a hydrogen power engineering in power-consuming industries and providing the mountain population with electricity and heat.
The project participant’s competence to the specified area. The employees of the project have a wide experience in researches of chemical reaction, electrolyses and production of hydrogen.
Expected Results and Their Application
Electrolysis of water is one of the most known and well investigated methods for production of pure hydrogen (99.6%–99.9% H2) in one technological stage. Efficiency of hydrogen production process by electrolysis is mainly defined by the electric power cost which makes up to 85%. Electrolysis can successfully be used at hydro stations. In addition, when thermal and atomic power stations have superfluous capacities, and their use for production and storage of hydrogen it is as an effective way of accumulation of the energy carrier. For this purpose, it can be used by powerful electrolyses by productivity up to 1Mln. m3 hydrogen per day.
At a large factory, electrolysis of water with capacity of 450 tons per day, and its expense of the electric power on 1Mln. m3 hydrogen can be finished by capacity of up to 4–4.5 kWt∙h. At such expense, the electric power in a number of power situations of electrolysis of water, even in modern conditions, can become a competitive method for hydrogen production.
The thermolysis of high molecular weight hydrocarbons and coal is one of the efficient ways, allowing accumulating surplus of the electric power which has not found commercial demand developed by hydroelectric power station. In the course of a thermolysis of coal, it is allocated from 20 to 30% of high-quality gas fuel which is extremely requested in our country. One of the main consumers of gas fuel is TALKO (The Tajik Aluminum Company). The technology which is an object of research in this project on transfer of surplus of the electric power to gas fuel, will allow resolving issues of providing with gas many domestic productions. Besides coal by a thermolysis, it is possible to receive high-quality gas fuel from natural and household wastes remaining not requested now and are a polluter of environment.
Meeting ISTC Goals and Objectives
The planned to realization main tasks of the project such as development of technology for producing hydrogen by electrolysis using energy idle discharges of water from reservoirs and development of systems for the accumulation of hydrogen have exclusively peace orientation and are focused on the solution of problems of environmental protection and economic security of the population.
The present project correspond to following purposes and tasks of ISTC such as:
- Gives to weapon scientists opportunities for reorientation of the abilities to peace activity.
- Problems of creation of alternative energy technology by use of idle discharge of water from reservoirs and protection of atmosphere from greenhouse gases represent essential scientific interest for not only Tajikistan and Central Asia countries but also for the world scientific community, public institutions and the commercial organizations operating in, the regions characterized by similar environmental problems. The proof of it is a significant amount of publications in scientific magazines and materials of the international scientific conferences devoted to the matter.
- Developed during implementation of the project methods of an assessment, decrease and/or compensation of technological and natural hazards will allow to develop optimum, reasonable, from the point of view of market economy, approaches to tactics of actions on decrease or elimination of consequences of global climate changes.
- Promotes the solution of national and international legal problems.
Volume of work:
Development of technology for water electrolysis;
Research of efficiency of electrolysis of water from materials of electrodes and constructional features of a Diaphragm; Development of modes of analytical quality control of gases of decomposition of water;
Development of technology of separation and accumulation of the hydrogen and oxygen, and analyses of chemical composition of coal and organic matters;
Creation of pilot installation and working off technology of electrolysis of water and thermolysis.
Role of Foreign Collaborators/Partners
Collaborator will represent available data on a project theme, to make comments on annual reports, to give the right to use available experimental methods and methodology of chemical processes. Also to promote the organization and carrying out of training of the personnel of TNU, to assist participants of the project in visiting of the international meetings and also in the organization and carrying out of joint symposiums and working seminars.
Technical approach and methodology
The methodology of the project will be based on close coordination of the experimental works, engineering and design decisions and wide application of the modern methods to the analysis and identification of products of reactions of an electrolysis and a thermolysis. The modern devices and installations will be for this purpose used. Interpretation of results of experiments will be carried out with application of mathematical statistics. For automation of technological processes, it will be widely used mathematical model operation based on computer programs.
The International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) is an intergovernmental organization connecting scientists from Kazakhstan, Armenia, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Georgia with their peers and research organizations in the EU, Japan, Republic of Korea, Norway and the United States.
ISTC facilitates international science projects and assists the global scientific and business community to source and engage with CIS and Georgian institutes that develop or possess an excellence of scientific know-how.