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New Detectors for PET

#0780


Development of Major Elements for Positron-Emission Tomograph

Tech Area / Field

  • INS-DET/Detection Devices/Instrumentation

Status
3 Approved without Funding

Registration date
05.11.1996

Leading Institute
VNIIEF, Russia, N. Novgorod reg., Sarov

Supporting institutes

  • NIIIT (Pulse Techniques), Russia, Moscow\nInstitute for High Energy Physics (IHEP), Russia, Moscow reg., Protvino

Project summary

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a method of medical diagnostics intended for investigations of physiological and biochemical processes in vivo. PET allows visualizing physiological processes in organs by the spatial distribution of pharmaceutical preparation tagged with radionuclide. Short-lived positron emitting radionuclides are used as tags.

Currently, PET is used in clinical practice of medical diagnostics to determine medical treatment tactics, to estimate expediency of surgical operation, etc.

Nowadays PET is developed in the direction of expansion of its clinical application at the expense of improvement of characteristics and decrease of PET-scanner cost. The most important PET-scanner characteristic is its spatial resolution. The main factors determining PET-scanner's spatial resolution are the sizes of a scintillation detector in use and a value of positron range in tissues before annihilation.

In modern PET-scanners scintillation detectors based on BGO crystals and matrices of usual or multianode position-sensitive photoelectron multipliers (PMs) are used to record gamma radiation. Attempts to improve the scanner spatial resolution up to the value -1.5-2 mm by decreasing scintillation detector cross-section sizes cause the significant decrease of annihilation radiation detecting efficiency.

The project goal is to study an ability to improve PET spatial resolution up to ~ 1 mm without increase of scanner cost and patient dose rates.

For this purpose it is proposed to develop gamma radiation detectors of new generation and to apply the method of space-time radiation modulation using coded apertures.

As a gamma radiation detector it is proposed to develop a scintillation detector based on crystals of lutetium aluminate activated by cerium (LuAlO3:Ce) and position-sensitive PM of special construction.

As a radiation modulator it is proposed to develop mobile coded matrix and an optimal scheme of its motion.

Within the given project it is assumed to consider an ability to use space-time modulation technique to improve the spatial resolution of currently available tomographs.

The expected results are:


- experimental prototypes of scintillation LuAlO3:Ce crystals, positron-sensitive PMs and laboratory model of the detecting system on their base,
- computer model of image reconstruction for PET-scanner with space-time radiation modulation by coded apertures,
- laboratory mock-up of PET-detector with spatial resolution ~1 mm.

Works under the project are proposed to be carried out in the following directions:


1. Development, study and optimization of detector characteristics, based on position-sensitive photoelectron multiplier with LuAlO3:Ce crystal.
2. Development of image reconstruction technique with space-time radiation modulation. Carrying out of computations to optimize detector and modulator characteristics.
3. Computational theoretical and experimental studies of detecting system model on the base of scintillation position-sensitive detectors and devices for space-time modulation of gamma radiation.

The cooperation and information exchange will be arranged between scientists and scientific institutes of Russia and foreign countries within this project which will allow experts engaged in nuclear weapons development to take part in nuclear medicine studies. We would like to invite the following scientists from the USA to participate in the project: Dr. Simon R. Cherry - Crump Institute for Biological Imaging, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, Dr. S. E. Derenzo - Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, Dr. Jorge Uribe - University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, Dr. M.S. Kaplan - University of Washington and European Community: Dr. F. de Notaristefani - INFN, Sezione di Roma I and Dipartimento di Fizica, Universita di Roma III, Italy, Dr. R. Pani - Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale, Universita "La Sapienza" Roma, Italy, Prof. C.v.Eijk, TUD, Delft, Netherlands, Prof. De Voigt, TUE, Eindhoven, Netherlands. The subjects of their studies are close to the given project subject, that's why, despite distinction in methodology, it seems useful to us to establish international cooperation for the development of PET-scanners with high spatial resolution.


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