Elaboration of an Improved Technology of Obtaining Heterogeneous Anti-Anthrax Immunoglobulin for Urgent Treatment and Prevention of Anthrax in Bacteriological Contamination of the Places of Distribution of the Troops, Firing Grounds and Inhabited Localiti
Tech Area / Field
8 Project completed
Senior Project Manager
Gremyakova T A
Georgian Academy of Sciences / Institute of Bacteriophage, Microbiology and Virology, Georgia, Tbilisi
- Battelle Memorial Institute, USA, OH, Columbus\nUniversity of Maryland / School of Medicine / Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, USA, MD, Baltimore
Project summaryThe major elements of anti-bacterial defense, determining its efficacy, are familiarization with infections, their diagnostics, clinic, treatment, and prophylaxis.
According to the aforesaid a special attention should be drawn to an exceptionally dangerous anthropozoonogic disease - anthrax.
Utilization of the anthrax bacteria as a bacteriological weapon was reported by Fox (1942), Rosebury, Kabat, Boldt (1947), Wiesman (1952), Klinve (1954).
The bases for the anthrax pathogenic organism's use in bacteriological weapons are provided by biological peculiarities of the bacteria. These peculiarities are as follows: the anthrax pathogenic organism is extremely dangerous for humans and livestock, during infesting in the natural conditions, disease carries on heavily even in its lightest - skin - form. Intestinal and, especially, pulmonary forms of the disease are characterized with lightning speed current and, unless the ultimate measures, the lethal outcome is envisaged.
Post-mortem diagnosis is made usually via the pathological-anatomical section.
Spores of the anthrax bacteria are extremely resistant to the various environmental damaging factors. Unlike the major pathogenic microbes, the anthrax bacilli readily and abundantly reproduce in the available artificial nutrient media.
Among the measures for antibacterial defense, intended for prevention of possible contamination at the moment of the above-mentioned bacteriological weapon's utilization, specific and non-specific means are determined.
In a course of the last 20-25 years, in the G. Eliava Institute of Bacteriophagy, Microbiology and Virology, Georgian Academy of Sciences, the problems of immunity, diagnostics, prevention, and specific treatment of the anthrax in humans have been investigated.
The above Institute has developed and implemented in production and medical practice the anthrax antibody dry erythrocitic diagnosticum for express revealing and identification of the anthrax pathogenic organisms' spores and vegetative forms in the pathological material (both in vivo and post-mortem, in humans and animals) and in the environmental objects. Discovery of the anthrax bacillus exotoxin shed a new light on the mechanisms of pathological action of this infection, whereas revealing of the anti-anthrax hyperimmune sera property to neutralize this toxin, experimentally corroborated the notion long noted by clinicians: serological therapy effectively alleviates or abolishes intoxication indices in the anthrax patients. Antibiotics, having bactericide property, cannot neutralize the toxin, produced by the bacillus in a patient organism.
Proceeding from the above-mentioned, in the Tbilisi Institute of Bacteriophagy, Microbiology and Virology, under supervision of I.A.Georgadze, anti-anthrax globulin production technology has been elaborated. The globulin was prepared from the blood serum of the producer-horses, hyperimmunized by live cultures of the apathogenic capsule-less strains of the anthrax pathogenic organisms (Authorship certificate #731631, 07.01.1980). Over ten publications have been printed concerning the above topic.
It should be noted that, considering the high importance of the specific component - antitoxin - in medicinal action of serological preparations against the anthrax, we intend to investigate measures for increasing the antitoxic properties of the hyperimmune sera and purified globulins obtained from the latter.
The aim of the present Project is improvement of technology for production of the anti-anthrax immunoglobulin with anti-toxic and anti-bacterial properties. The following tasks should be solved with an aim to reach the above goal:
1. To investigate and chose the most appropriate virulent and avirulent strains (STI-1, Ikhtiman, 71/12 2nd vaccine by Cenkowsky) for immunization of the animals.
2. To prepare highly immunogenic anthrax toxin for its utilization as of antigen.
3. To elaborate optimal scheme for hyperimmunization of the producer animals.
4. To obtain hyperimmune anti-anthrax serum and to extract the immunoglobulin.
5. To purify the anti-anthrax immunoglobulin with an aim to attenuate its allergic properties, by means of acid-enzyme hydrolysis and column chromatography.
6. To carry out a comparative study of prophylactic, protective and anaphylactogenic properties of the irnimmoglobulins, purified by different methods.
7. To develop an express-method for testing the anti-toxic and antibacterial properties of the anti-anthrax serological preparations.
8. To carry out experimental and clinical investigations of the anti-anthrax immunoglobulin with anti-toxic and antibacterial properties.
9. To prepare all the required technical documents.
The works to be undertaken will provide for production of highly effective specific preparation - the anti-anthrax immunoglobulin for treatment and prevention of anthrax in humans.
Development and production of the above preparation has significant military-defensive, medical, and social and economical value.
As a result of the investigations undertaken, the following technical documents will be compiled - Pharmacopeial report and Production Regulations for the anti-anthrax immunoglobulin. These documents will be submitted for approval by the Georgian Ministry of Health, which approval will serve as a legal ground for serial production of the preparation.
Considering scope and goals of the ISTC, the Project will employ nine (58.75%) so-called 'arms' scientists. Besides, bearing in mind that defense against the bacteriological weapons is a problem of the whole mankind, and contamination with anthrax is possible in any country and on any territory of the Earth, the immuniglobulin proposed by the authors, and aimed at treatment and prevention of infection, could be used in the other countries as well.
The International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) is an intergovernmental organization connecting scientists from Kazakhstan, Armenia, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Georgia with their peers and research organizations in the EU, Japan, Republic of Korea, Norway and the United States.
ISTC facilitates international science projects and assists the global scientific and business community to source and engage with CIS and Georgian institutes that develop or possess an excellence of scientific know-how.