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Genetic Variability of Plant in Semipalatinsk Region

#K-467


The Study of Plant Genetic Variability in the Natural Population of Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Area

Tech Area / Field

  • BIO-RAD/Radiobiology/Biotechnology
  • BIO-CGM/Cytology, Genetics and Molecular Biology/Biotechnology
  • ENV-EHS/Environmental Health and Safety/Environment

Status
3 Approved without Funding

Registration date
27.02.2000

Leading Institute
National Biotechnology Center of Kazakstan / Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, Kazakstan, Almaty

Supporting institutes

  • National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakstan / Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kazakstan, Almaty

Collaborators

  • Forschungszentrum für Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH (GSF) / Institut für Strahlenschutz, Germany, Neuherberg\nLos-Alamos National Laboratory, USA, NM, Los-Alamos\nHokkaido University / Faculty of Agriculture, Japan, Sapporo

Project summary

The purpose of the project is cytogenetic and cytoembryological study of chronic radiation influence on mutation process of plants of natural populations in condition of contemporary background radiation and radionuclide pollution of regions. The analysis of formation of mutation in vivo and estimation of genetic variability on model systems in vitro.

Pollution of environment by products of disintegration of radioelements caused serious irreversible consequences in biogeocenosis especially on territories that was used for nuclear weapon testing. In this connection essential acceleration of rate of microevolutionary processes in natural populations under influence of these factors and also increase of a negative mutations load transmitted to subsequent generations prick up. At absence of necessary monitoring in prospective the observable transformations in a gene pool of contemporary plants, animals and microorganisms in the long term can represent danger to their integrity with necessary monitoring absence.

The carrying complex researches in natural conditions are necessary for authentic establishment of the generated consequences danger degree. The given projects task performance will allow to detail pollution radionuclide levels on chosen skilled-experimental platforms of Semipalatinsk range territory. During projects performance the chromosomes aberration frequency in plant somatic and sex cells of the selected species and formation of man gametophyte cells will be investigated. The researches within the projects framework will allow carrying out cytoembryological study of fertilization and nucleuses formation and also karyotypes establishment of the dominant species representatives on experimental sites. On the base of haploid technology use the model system in vitro will be created, for an estimation of a mutation load of plants exposed to chronic influence of radiation. At organization of expeditionary field and laboratory researches the author will make use of modern radioecological, radiochemical and cytological methods of the analysis on equipment of leading firms. In researched assays will be determined the concentration of radionuclides 137Cs, 90Sr, 239,241Pu – products of nuclear explosions. Their presence in plants and ground will be determined. The performance of tasks of complex researches will allow to characterize genetic changes of kind living in conditions of a long chronic exposure.


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