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Monochromatic Soft X-Ray


Generator of Monochromatic Soft X-Ray Radiation for Scientific Researches and Education

Tech Area / Field

  • PHY-PLS/Plasma Physics/Physics

3 Approved without Funding

Registration date

Leading Institute
TRINITI, Russia, Moscow reg., Troitsk

Supporting institutes

  • NIIIT (Pulse Techniques), Russia, Moscow\nInternational Institute of Applied Physics and New Technologies, Russia, Moscow

Project summary

The offered generator is designed to provide a metrological tool for scientific researches in the field of high-temperature plasmas, x-ray structural analysis, and other branches of science and engineering, where a calibration source of monochromatic x-ray radiation is required. In addition, it may be used in university laboratories for training the students in the fields of plasma physics, x-ray optics, and other physical sciences. It is especially important to develop a generator for vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray radiation (SXR) (for a power range from 50 eV to 2 keV), for which there are no available radioactive isotope sources or they are not applicable because of their high self-absorption.

At the moment, the basic methods for generation of monoenergetic lines for the power range larger than 0.1 keV are the fluorescent method, in which K- or L- characteristic lines are generated by the primary radiation of x-ray tubes, and the method of direct excitation of these lines by electrons or protons, and both of them have serious limitations. The main disadvantage of these methods is a limited quantity of characteristic lines, that is due to a limited number of suitable targets, low efficiency of line generation, and high levels of the slowing-down and scattered radiations. The maximal intensity of lines in these generators does not exceed 1014 quantum/steradian Ч sec for the static, and 1019 quantum/steradian Ч sec for the pulse operation mode. The last mode is preferable to calibrate the detectors with high dark currents and polarization. There are practically no generators of monochromatic radiation with the powers lower than 0.1 keV. Expensive installations with laser heating of targets or synchrotron accelerator radiation are usually used for calibration.

The goal of this project is to develop a rather cheap, compact and simple generator of high-intensity radiation with adjustable wavelength, of average power from 50 eV up to 2 keV, and with a narrow-band spectrum. The design of the generator will be based on the optimal combination of a x-ray optical monochromatization system and a high-efficient short-focus soft x-ray pulse source. The source will have the maximal spectral intensity in the required power range.

As the x-ray source, it is supposed to use an originally designed high-current pulse generator with the plasma load from exploding wires, that provides the localization of radiation from a fixed point of space and a long service life of the generator without vacuum leakage in the working chamber. A multichannel system of interferometric multilayer x-ray mirrors will be designed for monochromatization of radiation. It will provide the adjustment to a given wavelength within the working range by setting up the required angles of reflection. This system will simultaneously calibrate a few (up to five) detectors and timely adjust the generator to any spectral region. It is supposed to develop a reference detector of pulse SXR to monitor the intensity of radiation in the channels.

In our opinion, this generator will have the following obvious advantages over the existing ones: a wider adjustable power range (E = 0.05-2 keV), a high degree of monochromatization (dE = 10-20 eV), and a high intensity of radiation in channels (up to 1020 quantum/steradian Ч sec with pulse duration of 10 nsec), and also the absence of high-energy slowing-down radiation. The generator, together with vacuum pump system, will measure within 100 ґ 50 ґ 70 cm, weight about 150 kg, and its estimated cost will not exceed 100 thousand USA dollars. We hope that the generator with such parameters will be in great demand.

The project is expected to result in the development of technical specifications, construction ant tests of a pilot model of the generator. After the project is over, it is planned to develop a small serial production by participants themselves of generators for research and training laboratories of scientific and industrial centers.

For realization of the given project in TRINITI, RIPT, and MIPFVT there is the necessary experimental and industrial base and qualified scientific and technological personnel. The personnel have wide experience in development of high current pulsing generators, of the detector equipment and of soft x-ray radiation metrology.

Role of the Foreign Partners

Within the scope of technological cooperation with the foreign partners, at the first stage of the project the technical requirements are supposed to be adjusted according to their specific problems. At the second stage, joint measurements are planned to be performed, to improve the calibration techniques and investigations of the spectral characteristics of specific detectors and devices on the pilot model of generator.

Presently this project was supported by Prof. G. Kebler (Institute of Neutronenphysik and Reaktortechnic, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany) and Prof. S. Nakai (Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Japan); who are interested in its realization. The correspondence with other interested organizations from the USA, Japan and France is being conducted.

We hope that the technological cooperation with foreign partners will broaden the area of applicability of the generator and contribute to the development of metrological basis of. x-ray measurements in various fields of science and engineering.


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