Investigation of Muscular Tissue State
Non-invasive Electromagnetic Investigation of Muscular Tissue State
Tech Area / Field
- PHY-RAW/Radiofrequency Waves/Physics
- MED-DID/Diagnostics & Devices/Medicine
8 Project completed
Senior Project Manager
Melnikov V G
VNIIEF, Russia, N. Novgorod reg., Sarov
- TRINITI, Russia, Moscow reg., Troitsk\nSurgery Center, Russia, Moscow
- Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA, CA, Livermore
Project summaryMany of the modern diagnostics/treatment methods are connected with an influence of radiation, different in its physical origin and spectral composition, on the human being. In this way, physiotherapeutic practice already exploits ultra high frequency and ultraviolet radiation for more then 50 years. Since the beginning of the 20th century the X-ray radiation is applied everywhere for inspection of the bone damage and different pathologies of internal organs. During last decades the radioisotope methods, laser therapy and surgery become widespread. New perspectives of the last years are connected with the development of tomography methods, based on high and ultrahigh frequency radiation (hereinafter designated electromagnetic (EM) radiation), for the creation of fundamentally novel approaches to diagnostics and treatment.
Project proposes two major directions of development of diagnostics methods, which use EM radiation.
I. Diagnostics of muscular tissue functional state.
Many research works showed, that practically there is no non-invasive diagnostics of perfusion state of muscular tissue, apart from any damage scaling, although nowadays the number of patients having obliterating arteriopathologies increases (e.g. approx. 10% of word population experience the atherosclerotic damages of arteries). In fact, at present times there are only two precise methods for estimation of muscular tissue state and perfusion: nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and radionuclide diagnostics, respectively. However, both methods are rather expensive and they are applied in the large-scale and well-equipped medical centers, whereas, recently, catastrophe medicine, military and civil traumatology hardly require precise and cheep modern diagnostics. Eventually there is lack of information on the muscular state of professional sportsmen: consequences of injuries and stretchings, overstraining and etc. All these play a great role not only for direct achieving of sport results by the sportsmen, but also for their further life within professional sport or apart of it.
The earlier biophysical experiments, some of which were performed by the co-authors of the project, show, that dielectric properties of myocardial tissue in the radiofrequency and microwave spectrum are sensitive to the alteration of regional blood groove, acute ischemia, chronic infarct and hypoxia, and it appears that the degree of changes observed in myocardial dielectric properties is quite enough for non-invasive diagnostics and mapping. Acute ischemia and infarct exhibit the strongly pronounced changes in dielectric properties of myocardium up to 10%.
Resting the above experimental results obtained for myocardium, it is possible to create the method for non-invasive mapping of perfusion state of extremity muscular tissue and another skeletal muscles of experimental animals and man.
II. Short-term termogenic EM loading for estimation of the reserved capacities of muscular tissue.
It is known that many effects of differently originated radiation on the living things are mediated through the action on the reactivity of its vascular system, in particular, on the reactivity of blood microcirculation. It should be stressed that dosed local or systematic temperature increase of investigated object might by used as a loading test. As is well known, enough intensive EM radiation possesses the termogenic effect. Therefore, by utilizing the ability to focus the EM-radiation at a certain piece of muscular tissue for creation of the localized, stimulated "hot sport", it is possible to use EM-radiation not only for the estimation of muscular (or other) tissue state, but also as the tool of loading test for estimation of reserved capabilities of this tissue through the short-term local heating of its targeted segment. This approach for estimation of reserved capacities of an organ or a system of animal or man opens the new possibilities for physiological and clinical investigations:
- One and the same facility is used for both measuring and load testing;
- Possibility appears to estimate the reserved capacities of analyzed organ or tissue at the extreme conditions: during the surgical operation and at early post-operational stages; during space or other flight; for determining the state of disaster victims and etc.
As a basic of the end-product for practical medicine two variants of diagnostic modules are possible:
1) The flat devices of different lengths and widths (this variant, which is mainly destined for investigation of neck, back, stomach muscles and etc., will provide the possibility for relatively easy-to-handle one-dimensional analysis of information);
2) The cylindrical 2D and 3D tomography chamber for investigation of muscular state of upper and lower extremities.
At the same time, likewise the known NMR and radionuclide methods, the proposed EM-radiation methods are manly based on the development of the original calculating models and algorithms for determination of diagnostic and therapeutic effect of applied radiation on the patient's organism.
Therefore the project is aimed to the investigation of possibilities for creation of the method and prototype facilities for non-invasive mapping of muscular tissue perfusion state. Development of the non-invasive mapping method and corresponding diagnostics apparatuses allows the significant extension of the scope of modern medical non-invasive methodologies for diagnostics and further treatment regimen selection. In addition, the proposed methodology is much more inexpensive in comparison to the NMR, and besides, it is less hazardous then radionuclide diagnostics. That makes the method accessible for the wider range of patients.
Within the project both theoretical studies, connected with the creation of mathematical models for biophysical tissue properties; interaction of EM-radiation with complex non-homogenous cell biostructures; method of EM focusing at non-isotropic biomediums and methods for recovery of composite dielectric permeability, and technical work for development, construction and testing of diagnostic equipment are planned. Also project assumes the series of experiments for approbation of developed methodologies and prototype devices on the artificial systems (phantoms) and on the real biological objects. The project is concluded by the demonstration of new method capacities for non-invasive mapping of muscular tissue damages, which are common for widespread diseases. Therefore, at the end of theoretical, technical and experimental project activities it is expected:
- to create the models of radiation field formation in the multi-component non-isotropic systems, which are typical for biological mediums;
- to develop methods for numerical calculation of radiation field parameters for such medium, considering the specificity of biological structures;
- to develop the methods for recovering the structure of investigated biological mediums by characteristics of diffused radiation, detected by the devices;
- to develop and to create the experimental specimens of apparatus for registering the diffuse radiation in the biological mediums at HF and UHF-ranges;
- to analyze the abilities of new diagnostic methodologies based on the deviations of dielectric properties of biological tissues;
- to test these methods on the models (phantoms) of biological tissues;
- to approve diagnostic methodologies for determination of functionally altered and/or pathological states, caused by the damage of muscular tissue. To analyze the data and to compare them to the results of biomedical investigations. Finally, to conclude on the effectiveness of the developed methodologies and apparatus.
The developed methods will be applicable in everyday practice of large clinics as well as at the ordinary policlinics, where it will be possible to reveal the degree of muscular tissue damage associated to the above nosological states. Using this method it will be possible to distinguish the local damage of a skeletal muscle, not only the fact of the damage, but also its degree. Also the method can provide the ability to recognize the damage of a muscular structures in the field, including the application of developed equipment directly at the center of mass destruction (mine collapses, consequences of act of terrorism, military trauma, also the space flights and sport injuries). The method provides the opportunity to estimate the extent of muscular fatigue, including the estimation of muscular reserved potential. Note that the project results assume the significant increase of space resolution of diagnostic equipment, and, in its turn, the associated increasing of diagnostics reliability of these or that diseases.
The project is supposed to be fulfilled in three stages:
1. During the first stage the physical models will be developed, which will provide the adequate description of dielectric properties of biological tissues at the different physiological states. Also the experimental methods for testing the produced models will be developed.
2. During the second stage is proposed to formulate the mathematical basics for modeling the properties of concrete biological tissues and propagation of electromagnetic waves within them followed by the experimental testing on the model objects (phantoms).
3. Concluding stage is destined to the application of developed model concepts for the real biological objects. It is intended to show the influence of physiological factors on the dielectric properties of living tissues, which properties, in their turn, lead to the alteration of electromagnetic field profile diffused by the biological object and therefore monitored using external tools of registering and prognosis.
The project accomplishment assumes the demonstration of effectiveness of new diagnostic routines for determination of muscular tissues state of the body and their pathologies, which are most characteristic for common diseases.
Methodology of the project activities covers the formulation of the basic equations, which are necessary for creation of recovery methods for dielectric properties of biological mediums, analysis of these equations, development of calculation algorithms for solving the wave equations in the multi-component highly diffusing mediums, development of diagnostic equipment, selection of the most optimal experiments, which allow to verify the certain virtual models, comparison of calculated results with measured data, and correction of the models basing on this comparison. The important place is featured to the testing of developed methodic by comparison with the results of natural medical-biological experiments. This approach will be exploited through all the project stages.
At each project stage there will be the intensive informational exchange between participants of ISTC project and collaborators. At the first place, this exchange concerns the results of diagnostic devices design held in Russia and the results of researches performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA, which is also supposed to be involved into the information and experts interchange. The joint seminars are scheduled together with the foreign collaborators.
In authors' opinion the proposed project is completely compatible with the goals and purposes of International Scientific and Technical Center. The implementation of this project allows to shift the efforts of scientists and experts from armament purposes towards the fundamental and applied problems of high frequency radiation in biophysics. The research institutions of Russia, which are going to participate in the project, have accumulated the significant experience in investigation of dielectric properties of a series of physical objects, including the biological systems. The priority results were obtained, which might be drawn for solving the mentioned problems. In such a way RFNC-VNIIEF develops: theoretical background and software for calculating the interaction of electromagnetic field with non-isotropic mediums of the complex space structure, adaptive UHF focusing, and the reverse problem of recovery the object properties from the diffused radiation, image reconstruction according to the diffused radiation in highly absorbing and diffusing mediums and etc. TRINITI holds: the research on fundamental theoretical basics for description of properties of dense, highly diffusing mediums, the work for image recovery from the diffused radiation in highly absorbing and diffusing mediums, the research on the properties of cell structures subjected to the field of electromagnetic radiation, the development of the extremely sensitive equipment for registering the distribution of electromagnetic fields, diffused by the investigated objects. The phantom experiments are performed to model the dielectric properties of biological tissues. RSSC RAMS provides the unique experience in investigation of functional and pathological alterations of the muscular tissue state, in the creation of the experimental models of the tissues, and in the experiments on animals for studying different pathologies of muscular tissue. It should be mentioned, that during last decade many of participants took part in creation of physical and mathematical models of biological objects in intimate co-operation with medical center of North Carolina, Charlotte, USA. In conclusion, we point out that the project orientation on the peaceful medical technologies in absolutely in line with USTC requirements.
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