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Radioactive Influence on Health

#0519


Radionuclide Pollution of the Environment and the Population Health.

Tech Area / Field

  • ENV-EHS/Environmental Health and Safety/Environment

Status
8 Project completed

Registration date
27.12.1995

Completion date
31.07.2001

Senior Project Manager
Horowicz L

Leading Institute
State Research Center – Institute of Biophysics, Russia, Moscow

Supporting institutes

  • Khlopin Radium Institute, Russia, St Petersburg\nVavilov State Optical Institute (GOI), Russia, St Petersburg\nVNIIEF, Russia, N. Novgorod reg., Sarov

Collaborators

  • RIVM - Laboratory of Radiation Research, The Netherlands, Bilthoven\nCEA / IPSN (Institut de Protection et Sûreté Nucléaire), France, Fontenay aux Roses\nRiso National Laboratory / Department of Safety, Denmark, Roskilde\nBundesamt für Strahlenschutz (BfS - S), Germany, Berlin\nUniversity of California / Department of Radiological Sciences, USA, CA, Davis

Project summary

Leading Scientists and Engineers who participated in preparing and conducting polygon nuclear weapons tests are to take part in the Project. They are experts in studying radionuclide pollution of the environment in regions of radioactive fall-out and in studying the damage caused by nuclear fission products and isolated radionuclides in polygon and laboratory conditions, epidemiological research in regions polluted with radionuclides after nuclear tests.

The PROJECT objective is to evaluate the danger for the population of radionuclide pollution of the environment resulting from nuclear weapons tests. To solve the above task materials of many years of radiation-hygienic and radio-biological research during nuclear weapons tests as well as the data of laboratory experimental research with the most biologically important radionuclides obtained by the SRC of RF Institute of Biophysics will be generalised. Thousands of experimental animals (mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, dogs and other domestic animals) were used in the field and lab tests The PROJECT will also provide a summary of many years of epidemiological observation in regions of radionuclides contamination because of nuclear weapons tests and Chernobyl APS accident

Materials of polygon tests about levels of radioactive pollution and radiation doses received by the population in different regions of the Russian Federation after nuclear tests are supposed to be evaluated. It is supposed to evaluate toxicity and biological action of nuclear fission products (PNF) depending on the conditions of their formation under isolated and combined action together with external radiation and distant consequences of PNFexposure based on polygon tests.

Using the conducted laboratory research data to evaluate:

- biological efficiency of the most dangerous dose-formingnuclides (131I, 137Cs, 90Sr, 239Pu, tritium oxide and others) at the level of critical, subcritical and chronic doses;

- determined and stochastic effects dose dependency;

- and determine regularities and mechanisms of development of cells and humoral factors disorders, their role in radiological exposure pathogenesis and recovery of organism Carry out additional experimental research with the aim:

- to evaluate relative genetic efficiency of 131I, 137Cs, 90Sr, 239Pu and immune systems in posterity induced by ionising radiation during mother's pregnancy;

- to reveal mechanisms of immature pathology in nervous and immune system of danger induced by ionising radiation exposure at mother pregnancy period;

- to evaluate the role of age and modifying factors on exchangekinetics and absorbed dose formation, as well as biological effects of incorporated radionuclides. To evaluate biological effects clinical, haematological, biochemical, immunological and pathomorphological parameters will be used.

To generalise the obtained and continue to collect epidemiological research data on radionuclides polluted territories that will include the evaluation of population reproductive health and genetics effects of the population according to the data about pregnant women health, frequency and character of adverse pregnancy termination and new-born health conditions including stillborn, new-borns' mortality and frequency of congenital development defects. Oncological sick rate of the population living on radionuclides polluted territories because of Chernobyl APS accident and nuclear weapons tests.

The Project integrated results will be used for:

- choosing dose criteria of evaluation of radionuclides environmental pollution influence on population health under different conditions of pollution formation;

- estimation of damage and health risk of the population living on radionuclides polluted territories.

Monograph is supposed to be prepared making use of generalised materials "Radionuclide Pollution of the Environment and the Population Health". Monograph publication will introduce a wide circle of experts (medical doctors, radiobiologists etc.) to the research results about some radionuclides and products of nuclear fission danger for a man and a optimisation of radiation protection against radiation. Knowledge of the actual radiation danger will improve radiological training of medical personnel and thus help to eliminate constant psycho-emotional tension (stress) among population due to exaggerated perception of radiation danger.

Potential Role of Foreign Collaborators:

Participation in the discussion of the Project results and preparation of a monograph.


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