Oxygen and Mixed Gases Production Technology
Engineering of High-Performance Techniques of Oxygen Production and Respiratory Mixed Gases for Space Systems and Public Health Services
Tech Area / Field
- SAT-MAS/Manned Space Station/Space, Aircraft and Surface Transportation
8 Project completed
Senior Project Manager
Tocheny L V
VNIIEF, Russia, N. Novgorod reg., Sarov
- Russian Academy of Sciences / Institute of Biomedical Problems, Russia, Moscow
- Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales/Utilisation Station Spatiale, France, Toulouse\nDivers Alert Network, USA, NH, Durham\nHumboldt Universität / Charité Universitätsklinikum, Germany, Berlin\nKHW Medical Foundation, Korea, Inchon\nAstrium GmbH, Germany, Bremen
Project summaryThe purpose of the work: elaboration of complex high-effective technologies of oxygen supply for extreme conditions, including piloted spaceflights, and also for public health. The general idea of the project is based on the following statements, estimated in recent years in Russian Federation State Scientific Center – Institute for Biomedical Problems:
1. The physic-chemical and biological features of oxygen can be modified depending on way and technology of it’s production.
2. The construction of respiration mixtures based on oxygen and gas components, which were considered as biological inert (helium, argon etc.) allow to obtain protective effect in emergency situations and positive result in treatment of respiratory and cardiovascular disorders.
This suggests possibility to create new generation of life support systems, means for life saving in emergency situations and equipment for humans treatment and rehabilitation.
During long-term researches, performed in RF SSC IBMP several directions were elaborated, which open principally new ways to formation of respiration gaseous media, which actively act on human organism.
1. By modification of oxygen production it’s isotope content may be changed. The generators are elaborated, capable to modify isotope content of oxygen, which is obtained by short-cycle unheating adsorption and from solid oxygen-containing compounds.
Electric discharge, formed in the gas medium, is the most effective and simple way to change its state (ionization degree and molecules excitation). Investigations of different forms of gas discharge are being performed in RFNC-VNIIEF during several decades.
Reached level of understanding of gas discharge formation processes, design development of electric-discharge devices of different purpose and existing diagnostics allow to speak on possibility of fast devices realization, based on pulsed-periodical gas discharge for strictly controlled change of physical-chemical Respiratory Mixed Gases (RGM) parameters.
It may be expected that application of modified oxygen may increase working ability in confined habitats and in underground works, to support high resistance to negative environmental factors, and to increase remarkably quality of oxygen therapy in medicine. The results of researches should allow creating oxygen respiration devices with high technical-economical indices: low energy demand, minimal mass and size. All listed circumstances will be of much value in medical practice, in public defense under emergency conditions, to increase quality of life support systems of inhabited spacecrafts and other confined objects.
2. Modification of RGM mixtures and physic-chemical properties of their components allows influencing directly physical and mental activity of living beings.
Oxygen-helium respiration mixture, created by special technology, possesses strong therapeutic effect, suggests fat transformation of organism from deep hypothermia and allows curing certain pulmonary diseases.
Thus obtained results persuade that principally new RGM may be created, capable to support normal life activity in tentative conditions of spaceflight and other extreme conditions. Evidently, this media will support working ability of human on the level, perfect for liquidation of emergency causes and for saving the very life. The respiration media may be elaborated, which possesses therapeutic and prophylactic activity firstly towards broncho-lung diseases.
For elaboration of new artificial RGM with given biological properties it is necessary to perform not only the complex of new technological researches but studies of their impact on living organisms of different level of organization as well: cells in vitro, microbes, lab animals, humans. Investigations, performed on each of the level should assist solution of specific objectives and perfect selection of content and physico-chemical properties of oxygen and inert gases mixtures. The experiments with lab animals should allow to perform primary selection of RGM, to verify possible physiological effects and reaction of the whole organism, organs and tissues on modified physico-chemical parameters of gaseous mixture. Investigations on cells culture allow to clarify possible cell mechanisms of modified gaseous media activity. The investigations with humans will allow to verify possible changes of physical and mental ability, to determine level of psycho-physiological reserves, which will be the background of adaptation potential increase under the influence of new artificial gaseous media. The studies of the artificial gaseous media on microflora will allow to provide microbial safety of further use of gaseous media and to verify the influence of the latter on ecology of the habitats.
It should be mentioned that the results of the project would have general human value, since they should be a new approach to medical help to people and to long-term oxygen therapy.
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