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Greenhouse Gases over Kyrgyzstan

#KR-1371


Comprehensive Monitoring Atmospheric Pollution and Greenhouse Gases Influencing Changes of the Ozone Layer and Climate Over Mountain Region of Central Asia (Kyrgyzstan)

Tech Area / Field

  • ENV-APC/Air Pollution and Control/Environment
  • ENV-MIN/Monitoring and Instrumentation/Environment

Status
8 Project completed

Registration date
25.11.2005

Completion date
20.04.2012

Senior Project Manager
Genisaretskaya S V

Leading Institute
Kyrgyz State National University / Institute of Fundamental Sciences, Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek

Supporting institutes

  • VNIITF, Russia, Chelyabinsk reg., Snezhinsk

Collaborators

  • Universite de Shebrooke / Center for Research in Remote Sensing Applications, Canada, Quebec, Sherbrooke\nKyoto University / Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Japan, Kyoto\nUniversity of Maryland at Baltimore / Goddard Earth Sciences and Technology Center, USA, MD, Baltimore\nUS Department of Commerce / National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration / Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory., USA, CO, Boulder

Project summary

The main purpose of the project is comprehensive monitoring of all key atmospheric gas species influencing climate changes including total ozone (O3), solar UV irradiation at the Earth's surface, vertical profile of ozone concentration (VP O3), total nitrogen dioxide (NO2), vertical profile of stratospheric nitrogen dioxide (VP NO2), total carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor (H2O), methane (CH4), nitrogen oxide (N2O), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), surface ozone concentration and optical properties of atmospheric aerosol at the Issyk-Kul station located in the area of Northern Tien Shan. Such monitoring is essential for experimental study of minor gases influence on climate changes and ozone depletions, for determination of regional peculiarities in variability of measured atmosphere parameters and their long-term trends caused by natural and anthropogenic factors, as well as for studying complex exchange processes between the troposphere and stratosphere, and for improvement of existing theories. During the project, it is planned inclusion of the Issyk-Kul station into global Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) for automatic monitoring of optical properties of atmospheric aerosol. Data of CO2 monitoring at the Issyk-Kul station will be used for validation of existing and planned satellite measurements of CO2 in the atmosphere.

Spectroscopic devices modernized and bought during the previous projects Kr-157 and Kr-763, at the Issyk-Kul station (Northern coast of the Issyk-Kul lake, 42.60 N, 770 E, 1640 m. above the sea) will be used for monitoring ozone, solar UV irradiation, minor atmospheric trace gases and aerosol optical depth.

During these projects, devices were made and modernized for measurements of atmospheric column total contents of СО2, О3, СН4, СО, Н2О, N2O и NO2. Software was developed for automatic operating of the devices and real time processing of the data. A servomechanism for automatic Sun monitoring was developed. Software was made for calculating of measured atmospheric parameters.

Using the results of measurements of atmospheric parameters at the Issyk-Kul station during the previous projects and taking account of the results obtained in previous years, variability characteristics (amplitudes and phases of periodic oscillations, linear trends, etc.) of the measured parameters over northern Tien Shan during last 25 years were obtained. Relations of ozone and CO2 variability with variations of geophysical parameters and wave processes in the atmosphere were investigated.

Differing from the previous ISTC projects, the new proposal envisages a comprehensive monitoring of atmospheric parameters (including meteorological data) at heights from the boundary layer up to the stratosphere, study of influence of exchange processes between atmospheric layers on the variability of measured values and the analysis of the role of distant transport of air masses on atmospheric polluting over mountain region of Central Asia. The Issyk-Kul station is the only station making 25-year continuous monitoring of atmospheric composition years in Central Asia. Therefore, it is very important to maintain continuity of the measurements in coming years, which will be real in the case of financial support of proposed studies. Besides, a monitoring of optical properties of atmospheric aerosol will be made with automatic CIMEL Sun/sky radiometer, which is a basic equipment of global AERONET network.

In the proposed project, partial modernization of measurement devices made during the previous ISTC projects will be performed based on their field testing, also software for obtaining of vertical profiles of ozone and nitric dioxide will be created. This information in combination with measurements of integral contents of optically-active and polluting atmospheric gases will allow to use the data of the Issyk-Kul station for validation of satellite measurements of CO, CO2, CH4, NO2 and other parameters of the atmosphere.

A great number of sunny days in the measurement area ensures high efficiency of spectroscopic methods used for atmospheric minor components monitoring. Region under observation is located in the central part of the Eurasian continent on a boundary between flatland and mountain chains of the Tien Shan and Pamir. Western and south-western transport of air masses dominating in this area is subject for considerable orographic perturbations giving rise to a complex of dynamic processes, influencing gas component variability in the atmosphere.

An important place will be given to studies of trans-boundary transport of air masses from zones of industrial and agricultural production to the industrial-free region of the Issyk-Kul station. It is supposed to continue studies of climatology of transport and diffusion of ozone and other admixtures by atmospheric waves and turbulence using unique data of multiyear observations with Japanese MU radar simultaneously with balloon, ozonesonde and lidar measurements. This will help to further understanding of the role of mesoscale dynamics in variability of ozone and other gas species over mountain regions including the Issyk-Kul station.

Atmospheric gas components monitoring at the Issyk-Kul station is of great importance due to supposed substantial differences between their variability above the region of Northern Tien Shan and average global variability of the components. These differences may be clearly seen, first of all, in the variability anomalies detected with spectroscopic measurements, which have been carried out at the Issyk-Kul station since 80-s.

To accomplish the Project objective the following issues shall be addressed:

  1. Modernization and laboratory testing the spectroscopic devices for measuring vertical profile of ozone concentration in the atmosphere and of atmospheric column total contents of methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrous oxide (N2O) and optical properties of atmospheric aerosol; field testing and reliability assessment for the modernized devices.
  2. Modernization of algorithms and computer codes for processing measurement data on vertical distribution of O3 and NO2, also on total contents of SO2, CH4, CO and N2O in the atmosphere.
  3. Monitoring of total contents of atmospheric gas admixtures (O3, CO2, H2O, СН4, SO2, СO, N2O), solar UV radiation, ozone surface concentrations and optical properties of atmospheric aerosol at the Issyk-Kul station (Kyrgyzstan), to study multi-scale variability and long-term trends of gas components. Inclusion of the Issyk-Kul station into international AERONET network for automatic control of atmospheric aerosol. Compare of CO2 measurements at the Issyk-Kul station with satellite CO2 data for their validating.
  4. Analysis of the results of combined long-term observations of variations of minor gas species and dynamic characteristics of the atmosphere.
  5. Study of the role of orographic and dynamic processes in the transport and diffusion of minor gas species and in the variability of characteristics of the atmosphere.
  6. Systematization and analysis of obtained experimental data (including the results from previous years), creation of databases and transfer them to the World Data Centre.

Upon completion of the proposed project the following main results are expected:
  1. Modernized measurement devices for proposed monitoring of total ozone and its vertical profiles, also of contents of the basic atmosphere polluting gases (SO2, CO, CH4 and N2O) and optical properties of atmospheric aerosol;
  2. Improved computer codes for determination of vertical profiles of ozone and nitrogen dioxide and of total contents of SO2, CO, CH4 and N2O in the atmosphere, also of optical properties of atmospheric aerosol;
  3. Real time data on the content of optically-active minor gas components (O3, NO2, CO2, H2O, SO2, CO, CH4 and N2O), solar biologically active UV radiation and on optical properties of atmospheric aerosol in the atmosphere above Northern Tien Shan during 2006 – 2008;
  4. Issyk-Kul station will be included into AERONET international network for monitoring of optical properties of the atmosphere;
  5. Results of the analysis of trajectories of distant transport of air masses and their role in the variability of gas species observed at the Issyk-Kul station;
  6. Results of the analysis of combined multiyear observations of dynamics and turbulence in the tropo-stratosphere with Japanese MU radar and osonesonde and lidar measurements of ozone and gas species at Tsukuba, Japan, for the study of multiyear changes of diffusive transport between the troposphere and stratosphere;
  7. Results of studies of the role of orographic and dynamic processes in the variations of concentrations of minor gas constituents over mountain regions and the Issyk-Kul station;
  8. Databases with the results of the monitoring for validation of satellite measurements of minor gas species in the atmosphere;
  9. Quantitative characteristics of trends of measured atmospheric gas components.

The implementation of the proposed project will make possible to get on-line data regarding variability of gas components influencing the atmospheric pollution and the climate, to renew and systematize experimental data obtained earlier, also to improve statistical and numerical models for determination and prediction of multiscale variability and long-term trends of gas components.

The atmosphere composition monitoring in the region of Northern Tien Shan is one of the major problems, which is of great interest both for Kyrgyz Republic and for neighbour states of Central Asia, as well as for other mountain regions of the Earth.


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