Brown Rust and Host Plant Genetics
Studying the Genetic Structure of Wheat Brown Rust Populations (Puccinia Recondita f. sp. Tritici Erikss. et Henn.), Making a Collection of Fungal Pathotypes and Creation of a Gene Bank of Wheat Resistance to the Pathogen
Tech Area / Field
- AGR-PPR/Plant Protection/Agriculture
- BIO-CGM/Cytology, Genetics and Molecular Biology/Biotechnology
8 Project completed
Senior Project Manager
Pradas-Poveda J I
Phytopathology Research Institute, Russia, Moscow reg., Bolshie Vyazemy
- Research Institute for Agriculture ( Non-Chernozem Zon), Russia, Moscow reg., Nemchinovka-1
The aim of the project is studying the genetic structure of various geographic populations of brown rust casual agent, making the collection of pathotype with different genotypes of virulence and creation of gene bank of wheat resistance to the pathogen.
Brown rust (Puccinia recondita f.sp. tritici Erikss. et Henn.) is one of the widespread and harmful wheat diseases all over the world. Populations of this species occupy large territories in Western and East European, North and Southern America, Asia and other regions, where wheat is cultivated. Severity of the disease in various climatic zones is due to high pathogen changeability and its high migratory capability.
Russian Federation is one of the largest wheat producers, its sown areas coming up to 26 million ha. Among many fungal, viral and bacterial diseases brown rust disease results in greatest yield losses because it is found everywhere and takes away about 10% of annual gain yield. In epidemic years yield losses may be 50% and more. In various regions (Central and Southern Russia, East Siberia, Volga Region) brown rust epidemic develop most frequently on winter and spring wheat crops.
Breeding of resistant cultivars is the most economically profitable and effective way for the disease control. Difficulty of breeding for durable resistance against brown rust is due to continuous appearance of new virulent races and pathotypes in pathogen populations. For developing the strategy of breeding for disease resistance it is necessary to understand the processes of pathogen evolution in the host-parasite interaction system, to know resistance types and genes controlling.
In our Institute investigations on intraspecific structure of Puccinia recondita populations have been carrying out for more then 30 years. As a result of these investigations both widespread and rarely occurred races in brown rust have been revealed, dynamics of resistance genes has been studied and genes controlling resistance trait in wheat cultivars have been identified. The collection of pathotypes to fungus for using in immunologic and genetic research has been created. Principles for estimation and choice of wheat varieties with different type of resistance have been worked out.
Within the framework of the project we intend:
1. To study genetic structure of races in brown rust populations from main European and Asiatic regions of Russia where winter and spring wheat is cultivated.
2. To replenish the collection with novel pathogen’s pathotypes from populations represented in various regions and to analyze genetic and molecular markers.
3. To study the world genofond of wheat cultivars in order to reveal forms with resistance of different type which can provide durable resistance.
4. To selection donors of what resistance to brown rust by means of distant hybridization method using Aegilops speltoides, Ae. triuncialis species, Triticum Kihare.
5. To study the inheritance of resistance trait in hybrid forms obtained by distant hybridization method.
Results of our researches should be new data both are on virulence genofond of pathogen population and on genofond of wheat cultivar resistance to P.recondita. Recommendations on using various genes in breeding for brown rust resistance in several regions of Russia based on these data will be worked out. Gene bank of resistance sources which can be used in wheat cultivar breeding for disease resistance will be created.
The project would enable Russian and American scientists to collaborate in field to work together at the problem of resistant cultivar breeding. Foreign collaborators (Prof. R. Line, Prof. K.Leonard and Prof. D.Long), who are well-known experts in realm of plant pathology and molecular genetics of Puccinia recondita, could help in developing the molecular marking method of causal agent races.
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