High-Speed Photodiodes for Microwave Circuits
Design and Fabrication of High-Speed InGaAs Photodiodes for Optical Control of Microwave Circuits
Tech Area / Field
- INF-ELE/Microelectronics and Optoelectronics/Information and Communications
- PHY-RAW/Radiofrequency Waves/Physics
3 Approved without Funding
National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus / Institute of Electronics, Belarus, Minsk
- Russian Academy of Sciences / Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics, Russia, Moscow
- Technische Universität Darmstadt / Institut fuer Hochfrequenztechnik, Germany, Darmstadt\nForschungszentrum Jülich GmbH / Institut fuer Schicht- und Ionentechnik, Germany, Jülich\nIllinois Institute of Technology / Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, USA, IL, Chicago
Project summaryThe project objective is the design and fabrication of high-speed InGaAs photodiode pilot models, operating under bias free conditions at the wavelength 1300–1500 nm in frequency range up to 40 GHz, for optical control of microwave circuits and devices.
Subject of the Project. High-speed photodiodes are key components of the microwave photonics systems. This Project is devoted to application of photodiode in such new and perspective area of microwave photonics as optical control of microwave circuits. The electrical control of microwave circuits in radio engineering is widely used in such applications, as broadband oscillators, phase shifters, tunable filters etc. Such problem in radio engineering is usually solved by using varactors, which capacity depends on bias voltage. In recent years, the optically controlled microwave circuits have increasing importance because of the presence of cheap optical devices. The advantages of optical control are high tuning speed and range, good accuracy and isolation between controlling and microwave signals.
One of the effective methods of optical control of microwave circuits is usage of nonlinear mode of the photodiode, which is achieved under bias free condition. In this mode capacitance-voltage and current- voltage photodiode characteristics is changed under illumination. These photodiode characteristics variation can be used for optical control of broad band oscillators, phase shifters and bandpass filters as well as for the remote control of phased array antennas. In this case the tuning range can be very wide.
Photodiode application in optically controlled microwave circuits is rather perspective. However now the special photodiodes, operating under bias free condition, for optical control are not commercial available.
The Project contribution to the problem of the optical control of microwave circuits. During the project realization the mathematical model, designs, fabrication technology and measurement techniques of parameters high-speed InGaAs photodiodes, effectively operating under bias free condition at 1300-1550 nm wavelength in frequency range up to 40 GHz, will be developed and pilot models of high-speed InGaAs photodiodes, connecting with an optical fiber and microwave transmission line, will be fabricated.
The results of the Project will be a basis for development of economic industrial technology of high-speed InGaAs photodiodes fabrication, operating under bias free condition, for optical control of microwave circuits in frequency range up to 40 GHz. At interest of firms producing optoelectronic devices, authors of the project are ready to cooperate in commercialization of obtained results.
Expected Project results and their application. The project belongs to the categories of the applied research and basic research. The design and fabrication techniques of photodiodes for optical control of microwave circuits are planning to patent. Now the special photodiodes, operating under bias free condition, for optical control are not commercial available. Designed high-speed InGaAs photodiodes as a result of execution of the Project can find wide application for usage in optically controlled microwave circuits, such as broadband oscillators, phase shifters, filters, remoting phased array antennas.
The participants of the Project have high qualification in microelectronics, optoelectronics, radiofrequency waves and solid-state physics and have the large professional experience in the field of the missile technology (development of radio-electronic equipment for guidance and control of missile systems). The Project will be carried out in Institute of Electronics of National Academy of Sciences of Belarus (Minsk) and in Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow). The Institute of Electronics is one of the leaders in Republic of Belarus the field of microelectronics, optoelectronics and optical methods of signal processing. The Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics is one of the leaders in the Russian Federation in the field of microwave and millimeter wave electronics.
The Project is based on results of detailed researches of photoelectric processes in multilayer semiconductor heterostructures, carried out by the participants of the Project during two last decades.
Meeting ISTC Goals and Objectives. The Project involves in sphere of civil application the modern equipment, which became accessible during conversion of the Byelorussian capacities of military purpose (assignment), and promotes long-term prospects of cooperation between the scientists of Republic of Belarus, Russian Federation and Germany. The participation in the Project will ensure with work of the highly skilled experts, which were earlier involved in the defensive projects.
During Project realization the following ISTC objectives will be achieved:
· providing weapons scientists and engineers, working in the field of missile technology, radiofrequency waves, optoelectronics and microelectronics, from Republic of Belarus and Russian Federation opportunities to redirect their talents to peaceful activities;
· promoting integration of scientists, working in the field of missile technology, radiofrequency waves, optoelectronics and microelectronics, from Republic of Belarus and Russian Federation into the international scientific community, since during project realization the participants of the project will be interchange the scientific information, conduction of joint investigations and published obtained results with scientific centers of Federal Republic of Germany.
Scope of Activities. The Project will be carried out in the Institute of Electronics of National Academy of Sciences of Belarus (Minsk) and in the Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow). The Project is planned to execute during two and a half of years and it is required 388,5 man*mths. 27 scientists and specialists, from which 3 doctors of sciences and 9 philosophy doctors, will participate in the Project. 19 men are employees of the Institute of Electronics, and 8 men are employees of the Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics.
The mathematical model, design, fabrication and packaging technologies for high-speed InGaAs photodiodes, operating under bias free condition in frequency region up to 40 GHz, will be developed in the Institute of Electronics. The techniques of microwave measurement of photodiode characteristics in frequency range up to 40 GHz will be developed in the Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics.
Role of Foreign Collaborators. During the Project the cooperation and scientific information exchange between the participants of the Project and Prof. H. Hartnagel (Institute of High frequency Techniques of Technical University Darmstadt, Germany) and Prof. P. Kordos (Institute of Thin Film and Ion Technology, Juelich, Germany) will be continued. The Institute of High frequency Techniques is one of the leaders in Germany in area of a high frequency techniques, and the Institute of Thin Film and Ion Technology occupies a leading position in Germany in the field of high-speed photodetectors and optoelectronic integrated circuits fabrication. The shapes of collaborator participation in the Project are following:
· independent testing of samples on measuring equipment of collaborator, participation in technical monitoring of project activities performed by ISTC staff;
· conduction of joint seminars and workshops, and consulting on protection of intellectual property.
Technical Approach and Methodology. The photodiode design will be developed on the basis of computer modeling of photoelectric processes in multilayer InGaAs/InP heterostructures. Pilot models of photodiodes will be fabricated on epitaxial InGaAs/InP structures by methods of planar technology using of engineering processes such as diffusion, passivation, electrochemical etching and metal deposition. The photodiode operation in optically controlled microwave circuits will be studied by means of the analysis of characteristic variation of microwave transmission line with photodiode under optical controlling signal feeding.
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