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Grain-Sowing Regions of Kazakhstan

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Analysis of Parameters of Agro Ecological Systems Stable Functioning of Grain-Sowing Regions of the Republic of Kazakhstan

Tech Area / Field

  • INF-SIG/Sensors and Signal Processing/Information and Communications
  • OBS-NAT/Natural Resources and Earth Sciences/Other Basic Sciences
  • AGR-OTH/Other/Agriculture

Status
3 Approved without Funding

Registration date
06.04.2006

Leading Institute
Institute of Space Research, Kazakstan, Almaty

Supporting institutes

  • Scientific and Analytical Center Biomedpreparat LLC, Kazakstan, Stepnogorsk

Project summary

During last 50-60 years the special role was allotted to Kazakhstan as producer of wheat- improver, giving high-quality grain. Kazakhstan is the main producer and exporter of grain in the Central Asia region. That is why the actual problems are regional soil fertility, crop productivity and grain quality. Development of market relationship in agricultural production, availability of private ownership for lands and ability to sale agricultural holdings demands more objective information about land quality. Intensive using different chemicals in agriculture in Soviet period resulted in land contamination by different sources such as pesticide usage in agriculture and emissions from transportation infrastructures, industrial plants and mining operations. These have negatively influenced the ecological parameters of arable lands. Concentration of persistent organic contamination and heavy metals in soil, used for grain production, may significantly exceed the maximum permissible concentrations. Currently the objective information about nutrients and contamination in arable lands in Kazakhstan is absent.

In last years the following factors influencing on the wheat production decrease are registered by the specialists: mineral and organic fertilizer cutting down, non-observance of crops rotations, non-application of science-grounded agriculture systems, and violation of seed-growing principles. On the main sown areas humus reduced on 25-30 %, the contents of main nutritious elements N, P, K are changed. Because of harvest protection integrating system’s absence its wastes mount to 15-70%.

It is necessary to note, that food safety is one of the basic republican priorities, and in Kazakhstan process of integration into the international scientific community began. It allows realizing national, regional projects.

Project objective is to develop complex estimation of the current soil fertility and ecological condition of the arable lands in the main grain productive regions of Kazakhstan by the methods of ground observations and remote sensing.

To achieve the purpose the following tasks are presented:

  1. To value the modern state of the soil fertility in agroecosystems of the Northern Kazakhstan’s sowing regions by ground and remote sensing methods.
  2. To investigate agrophysical and agrochemical soil properties and its connection with crop yield and grain quality.
  3. To create database for elaboration of ecological monitoring the Northern Kazakhstan sown regions territory.
  4. To offer recommendations for local farmers in getting maximum possible ecologically pure yields, soil bioproductivity increase and stability of grain production.

At performance of project tasks the following results are expected:
  1. The parameters of agroecosystems stable functioning will be studied for Northern Kazakhstan’s sown areas. This investigation corresponds to State agrofood program and main directions of ecological security conception of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2004-2015 years which provides an estimation and prevention of ecological threats.
  2. The inventory of the ecological condition of arable lands will be carried out, i.e. the contents of pesticides in the arable lands will be defined, that relates to stable contaminants of environment (DDT and products of its bio destruction, hepta-chorine, HBC and its isomers, 3- ethyl-conazol etc.) and of toxic elements of inorganic nature (lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, zinc, nickel etc.).
  3. Geographical Information System (GIS) database for grain production regions will be created on the base of ground surveys, laboratory analysis and remote sensing data.
  4. Scientifically proved package of recommendations taking into account ecological and economical features will be issued for local farmers.

Thus, for the first time the current level of fertility and ecological status of arable lands in Kazakhstan will be estimated and the answer for the question, are the agricultural lands contaminated with pesticides and inorganic toxic elements in the limits that exceed the maximum permissible level, will be obtained. SRI personnel will get new knowledge about modern satellite systems and monitoring of ecological status and soil fertility. Bio Ecological Center personnel will master the new methods of sample analysis and extend their analytical potentials. The fulfillment of the project will allow creating a scientific database for following progress in research, to attract new group of potential consumers –grain productive companies and farms.


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