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“Dry” Decontamination of Human Skin

#3685


Self-Contained Personal Kit for “Dry” Decontamination and Isolation of Human Skin and Wounds from Radioactive Contamination and Pathogenic Bacteria

Tech Area / Field

  • ENV-RED/Remediation and Decontamination/Environment
  • ENV-RWT/Radioactive Waste Treatment/Environment

Status
3 Approved without Funding

Registration date
10.01.2007

Leading Institute
VNIIEF, Russia, N. Novgorod reg., Sarov

Supporting institutes

  • A.I. Burnazyan Federal Medical and Biophysical Center, Russia, Moscow

Collaborators

  • Los-Alamos National Laboratory / Nuclear Nonproliferation Division, USA, NM, Los-Alamos

Project summary

The objective of the Project is to develop a personal self-contained kit for “dry” human skin decontamination and isolation from radioactive materials and pathogenic bacteria.

Existing up-to-date methods used in Russia for skin and wound decontamination and protection from radioactive contamination mainly rest upon the use of different aqueous alcoholic solutions, special detergents, pastes, gels, aseptic dressings, foam spray compositions RADDEZ-D.

As practice shows, the effectiveness of skin decontamination, especially in injured areas, to a great extent depends on the timely and reasonable application of appropriate decontamination methods and means. At that, medical practices should be integrated and, first of all, preclude incorporation of radionuclides into the body and ensure their removal from the injured area, possibility of isolating the contaminated area from further contamination and stimulated removal of resorbed radionuclides from the body.

All these requirements can be met by dry decontamination by means of film-forming compositions. The latter are proposed to be polymer-based preparations, neutral to the skin (soft tissues), with plasticizing and surface active additives. The film, which forms as they dry, absorbs and immobilizes radionuclides, i.e. it hampers the incorporation of nuclides from the wound inside the body and at the same time isolates the wound from ambient effects.

Adding aseptic and anesthetic chelates to such foam-forming compositions will enable making a composition with combined bactericide and pain killing action.

The effectiveness of such a composition can be enhanced by its dispersion using an aerosol sprayer.

Such a sprayer may structurally be an aerosol aluminum can with a capacity of e.g. 100 cm3 or more (depending on the purpose).

The following steps will be taken to develop such a personal self-contained dry skin decontamination and isolation kit:

  • a decontaminating film-forming polymer composition adapted to human skin and soft tissues with aceptic and anesthetic properties will be developed;
  • decontamination efficiency of the composition depending of the type of radionuclide and content of aceptic and anesthetic chelates will be determined;
  • a prototype aerosol can with the film-forming composition will be developed and fabricated;
  • control tests on laboratory animals to assess the decontaminating and bactericide effectiveness of the composition will be conducted.

As a result, these activities will provide a real opportunity to develop and implement an effective method for personal body protection from contamination with radioactive and other hazardous materials, including pathogenic bacteria.

The use of the aerosol composition for inpidual protection will enable timely treatment of the skin or wound on the spot in practically any situation and will help preclude serious illnesses caused by the penetration of hazardous substances into the body.


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