Anti-Personal Mines Detection and Deactivation
System of Improved Reliability for Detection and Deactivation of Anti-Personal Mines remaining in Place After the End of Military Operations
Tech Area / Field
3 Approved without Funding
TsNIIKhM (Chemistry and Mechanics), Russia, Moscow
- Kurchatov Research Center, Russia, Moscow
- TEAM Specialty Corp., USA, NM, Albuquerque
Project summaryThe task of a safe residence ensuring for the population and of restoring vast areas occupied for military operations for the economical application is considered by the world community at the present time as one of the most important tasks. The fact of a particular importance has to be stated that a danger set up by the availability of mines and other explosive hazardous objects (EHOs) is not diminished with time but grows on.
According to the assessments of specialists, about 20 millions of mines have been emplaced by the present time in the countries where military conflicts have been recently conducted (for example, the south of Africa). /Proceedings SPIE, April 1995, Orlando Florida/. As a rule, maps of mine-fields intended for the fight with military techniques are absent, to say nothing of anti-personnel mines strewn over by special machines. A dismal statistics testifies that many thousands of peaceful inhabitants annually become victims of mines and children present about 70% of those. Therefore, demining of anti-personnel mines and other EHOs in the areas producing a threat to the life and health of the civil population of many countries has become the problem common to all mankind.
The complexity of problem of detection of anti-personal mines lies in the fact that:
- a high physical-chemical resistance of modern explosive materials does not result in their decomposition with time;
- different types of materials employed for shells and completing units of mines (both different metals and plastics) do not allow to rely upon the effective detection of mines by detectors based on any one physical principle;
- employment of combined technical means and methods for initiation or actuation of mines and EHOs requires a combined impact;
- different kinds of conditions of mined territories complicates the search and detection of mines and EHOs.
The solution of the problem of the ground demining is directly associated with the solution of two interrelated tasks that are solved in the following succession:
- detection of mined fields, inpidual mines, and EHOs;
- deactivation of mines and EHOs.
All detection systems (mine-detectors) known at the present time employ either direct detection methods, basing on the active irradiation of the ground surface or indirect methods recording natural abnormalities the occurrence of which is associated with the availability of heterogeneous objects (mines, EHOs) in the region of the detector operation and that are revealed in accordance with knows physical laws.
The analysis of the basic worldwide lines directed to the development of means for detection of mines and other EHOs has shown that in spite of the availability of many kinds of technical arrangements using different physical principles or the combination of those there is no any versatile detection system today.
Any of the chosen methods and physical principles has definite disadvantages though implements the maximum of technical capabilities. Let us describe briefly the present time status of means for detection and demining. An induction mine detector used widely now records only those mines that contains in the design a minimum necessary quantity of metal. The search pace in this case does not exceed 300 m2/hr. (Zarubezhnoye voennoe obozreniye, N 1, 1996). Geomagnetic quantum mine detectors having a very high sensitivity (up to 10-12 tesla) also require the availability of a definite magnetic mass. At the same time, they are too expensive and as the induction ones have a low search pace. Radio-frequency mine detectors having the advantages of radar systems (obtainment of two- and three-dimensional images) change significantly their performances depending on the condition of the ground surface. Infra-red detection systems having a high sensitivity and precision depend on camouflaging features of the soil upper layer and capable to operate in the maximum range only in the definite time of a day.
The employment of roentgen and neutron radiation is limited by the necessity to use radiators exposing a harmful impact on a man. This fact allows to use this system reliably only on mechanical carriers remotely controlled. Biotechnical systems require a long time for the information analysis and reduce their precision performances in the presence of wind.
The efforts are known to advert a combined system for the detection of mines ("General Dynamics", USA) on the basis of an infra-red and radar detectors. However, this system demonstrated a higher level of false alarms with satisfactory parameters in mine detection.
The mentioned above disadvantages of systems known now limit considerably the range of their application.
The problem of deactivation of mines and EHOs is resolved now by the methods of mechanical and explosive mine-sweeping. Knife, plough, and firing-pin mine-sweepers are employed quite successfully at the present time. A high efficiency and quality of mine sweeping of this kind result in a quite high cost of this work with a comparatively high self-vulnerability of mine-sweepers from anti-board, radio controlled and special mines-traps located outside the region of direct sweeping.
The methods of explosive mine-sweeping are free from the mentioned disadvantages to some extent and the employment of those provides for the deactivation of mines and EHOs in the regions 0.5 through 50 meters wide and 10 through 530 meters deep. A common disadvantage of methods for explosive mine-sweeping (demining) is high degree of contamination of a demined territory by explosive products.
Aiming to improve the reliability of mine detection and paces of their demining, a mathematical instrument is proposed to be developed within the context of this Project on the basis of experimental studies of information fields and theoretical models of both mines and EHOs and backgrounds of their generation. This instrument will allow to combine rationally both identification physical principles and spectrum ranges with regard to peculiar features of regions. In this case, the analytical method will be the basis for the rational combining that will allow to choose a determining rule basing on the multi-mode information. This rule will provide the reliability required for the mine detection with the preset level of false alarms.
A complex system for humanitarian demining providing for both the detection of mines and their deactivation with regard to peculiar features of regions is planned to be developed on the basis of physical principles and rational spectrum ranges chosen with the help of the mathematical instrument.
To improve the reliability and paces of demining as well as the quality of clearing of demined territories, the problem of demining of mines and EHOs is proposed to be resolved within the Project framework by the rational combination of explosive mine-sweeping with the electromagnetic impact on the reception parts of mines and EHOs. To keep the ecology of demined territories safe, the studies are supposed to be performed within the Project context aiming to determine and choose special components (neutralizators) to be included in the composition of means for explosive mine-sweeping.
To improve the reliability of mine deactivation, a technical arrangement, is supposed to be developed within the Project context allowing to advert a more effective electromagnetic impact.
The objectives of the present Project are as follows:
- to perform studies of information fields (signatures) of mines and EHOs as well as of background generations;
- to develop algorithms and softwares to choose rational spectrum ranges for a combined detection system;
- to develop a complex system for humanitarian demining intended for the effective demining of territories with regard to peculiar features of regions;
- to create fragment mock-ups for the combined detection system and to perform their running tests under laboratory and real conditions.
The major efforts will be applied to the problems of combining the most informative spectrum ranges, namely, radiation, optical, radio-frequency and ultra-sonic fields as well as to the development of technical solution on the basis of the gas analysis method. The necessary condition for the combinability is the realization of single compatible system for the representation, processing and analyses of recorded data that is possible on using compatible technical means.
The advert of the combined detection system within the Project framework will be performed with the employment of the experience gained by the team in the course of the advert of acoustic, thermovision, super high-frequency automatic systems. Studies of information fields of mines and EHOs will be performed using the experience gained during many years on studying nonsteady-state fields of technical objects under the conditions of their complicated interaction.
SSC RF CNIIKHM possesses the experience on the development of a technology the application of which will allow to solve the problem of the preliminary "clearing" of the territory to be demined with the termination of mines and other EHOs located on the surface and in upper layers of the soil that will considerably reduce searching efforts.
In addition, the SSC RF CNIIKHM has a definite experience in the justification and choice of a rational technical aspect of combined systems for the search and detection. The calculation-experimental methods and means are available in the RRC "Kurchatov Institute" as well as the experience of studies of spatial-energy abnormal features of gamma- and neutron radiation in different media.
The application of the suggested system for improved reliability of detection and deactivation of anti-personal mines (a complex system for humanitarian demining ) will provide the following:
- 1.5 to 2 time increase in the pace of demining in comparison with the one provided by the means available at the present time (including mobile ones) due to the installation of a combined detection system to be developed on a mobile mechanical carrier and to the application of the proposed method for the territory preliminary "clearing";
- the improvement of the confidence for the detection of both metal and non-metal mines (Pdet > 0.95 for surface mines and Pdet > 0.92 for mines placed in upper soil layers) due to the receipt and processing of multi-channel input information;
- not less than 50 time reduction in the probability of false alarms (Pfalse » 4ґ10-4 that corresponds to one false signal at the area of 300 m2) due to the rational combination of information channels and employment of adaptive algorithms for the information processing;
- reduction in time needed for the mine search and territory demining with a cut (2-3 times) in expenses.
Team Specialty Products Corp. (USA) has agreed to be foreign collaborator of the Project and has taken interest in suggested methods and the technical solutions.
The participants of the suggestion of the Project presented to ISTC are interested in the evaluations of the work they are conducted and would be grateful to all foreign firms for the analysis and discussion of the work results obtained in the course of Project fulfilling.
If foreign firms take interest in the problem of mines detection and deactivation participants of the Project invite them to be a foreign collaborator in it without any financial support from their side.
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