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Waste Reprocessing with Heat Production

#1703


Utilisation of the Energy Released from Processing Municipal Solid Waste for Desalination of Sea Water

Tech Area / Field

  • ENV-WDS/Waste Disposal/Environment

Status
3 Approved without Funding

Registration date
02.12.1999

Leading Institute
Keldysh Research Center, Russia, Moscow

Supporting institutes

  • Kurchatov Research Center, Russia, Moscow

Collaborators

  • Bechtel National Inc., USA, CA, San Francisco\nNANARA, LTD CO, Korea, Gyunggi-do

Project summary

Nowadays the problems of processing municipal solid waste (MSW) and supplying with fresh water are among the most important problems. So, the Project offered with the goal of using the energy obtained from processing MSW for desalination of sea water is aimed at meeting two most important problems of mankind.

The main sources of thermal and electrical energy in this Project is MSW. It is also intended to use liquid or gaseous carbonic fuel to provide stability of the complex work.

At the expense of utilization of the energy released from the process of the municipal waste treatment sea water is to be desalinated.

The goal of this Project is to develop scientific and technical basis for further designing industrial equipment and optimal technological schemes of MSW processing including some liquid waste and sewage in combination with sea water desalination at the expense of heating value of the MSW. It is also meant to develop Conceptual Project of a Plant for MSW processing and desalination of sea water that shall provide effective utilization of MSW and supplying towns with population of about 100 thousand people with potable water.

The project fits the goals and tasks of the ISTC because it is aimed at development of fundamental and applied research and designing works in the field of environmental protection and water supply by means of creating new technical decisions and technological regimes of MSW processing and sea water desalinating at the expense of utilization of the energy released from processing MSW.

Scientists and specialists who were previously engaged in research and development of missile engines on liquid and solid fuel and those engaged in nuclear research and development of military application.

The expected results of the Project obtain commercial potential and can become the basis of long term economical help for the scientists and specialists as well as to support conversion of the industry from military needs to civil ones by means of further creation of industrial equipment for processing MSW and desalination of sea water.

Plan of the works has been scheduled for two years and in line with the goals of the Project contains the following interconnected directions of the works:

- investigation of the processes of thermal treatment of MSW including some liquid waste and sewage using laboratory experimental equipment as well as theoretical analysis and calculations in gas dynamics, heat and mass exchange, thermodynamics and kinetics of the processes of pyrolysis and burning;

- investigations of sea water desalination (evaporation, reverse osmosis) taking into account the peculiarities of the proposed schemes of the plant for processing of MSW and as well as concentration of sewage with utilization of laboratory equipment and theoretical and calculational analysis of heat and mass exchange, evaporation and condensation in the processes of desalination of sea water;

- esigning and manufacturing demonstration samples of the crucial elements of the complex technological scheme intended for capacity of 10 kg/h of MSW and desalination of 1.2 cub.m/h of sea water;

- summing up the results obtained for further designing industrial equipment for processing MSW and desalination of sea water;

- analysis and optimization of the possible technological schemes of plants for thermal processing of MSW of various composition with utilization of heating value of the waste for desalination of sea water;

- development of Conceptual project of a complex for processing MSW and desalinating sea water with capacity of 100 tons of MSW per day;

The basis for developing this project are the results of long time research of the processes of burning liquid and solid fuels, hydrodynamics and heat/mass exchange in two-phase flows in liquid rocket engines and nuclear reactors, thermal processing radioactive waste and more that had been carried out in defense science and industry of Russia.

The proposed technology of processing of MSW and desalination of sea water includes an installation for thermal processing of MSW, power installation, desalination installation and auxiliary equipment. The combination of the technologies of processing of MSW and desalinating sea water will provide noticeable increase in the effectiveness of the technologies applied.

The toxic level of the exhaust gases generated in the course of processing MSW which is actually one of the main problems in processing waste will be decreased greatly because the process of MSW treatment within the combined technological scheme can be realized at higher temperatures provided that the additional fuel spent is to be compensated by the outlet of additional amount of fresh water. Direct utilization of the energy released from processing waste for desalinating sea water both in the form of the thermal energy released and after converting the heat into electricity makes it possible to avoid the necessity of having complicated systems of fitting the existing heat and electricity nets. It also makes it possible to increase the specific outlet of the desalinated water by means of reasonable combination of the devices using thermal and electric energy.

Regarding the installation for processing MSW the main attention will be paid to development a device for afterburning, that are used in all modern incinerators. This afterburner will not only allow to afterburn organic materials contained in the outcoming gases but, if necessary, to afterburn and render harmless various liquid waste and/or sewage containing toxic substances.

When processing low calorie waste and afterburning the outcoming gases it is intended to use special burner devices and chambers of preliminary gasification of liquid fuels that were developed within the frame of investigation of the processes of burning. These devices should increase completeness of burning to a great extent and thanks to increase of the temperature of the outcoming gases it will provide ecologically optimal designs of the equipment for thermal processing MSW.

The Russian technology of evaporating water with recompression of the secondary steam which was many times tested on Russian space crafts is the basis for designing desalination station. The distilled water generated in the course of evaporation obtains very high quality of cleaning by the utilization of whirlwind evaporating apparatus. Increase in the effectiveness of utilization of the reverse osmosis desalination installations is supposed to be reached at the expense of utilization of special hydraulic turbines which provide recuperation of the energy of the outcoming flow of concentrated product.

In the process of carrying on the Project there will be created demonstration samples of crucial elements of the complex technological scheme, in particular: furnace of thermal processing MSW with afterburner, high pressure steam generator, adiabatic evaporator with whirlwind separators, thermocompressor, reverse osmosis installation, and a system of automatic measurement and control.

The technology offered may be of interest first of all for such countries as Japan, USA (California), Israel, Singapore, India. In those countries there is real technical possibility of realization of this Project in the nearest years.


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