Bacteriophage Composite against Dental Infections
Development of a New Phage Composite Targeted to Prevent and Treat Mixed Infections
Tech Area / Field
- BIO-IND/Industrial Biotechnology/Biotechnology
8 Project completed
Senior Project Manager
Melnikov V G
Georgian Academy of Sciences / Institute of Bacteriophage, Microbiology and Virology, Georgia, Tbilisi
- Department of Veterans Affairs / VA Northern California Health Care System, USA, CA, Martinez\nLaval University, Canada, QC, Quebec City
Project summaryToday bacterial infections of oral cavity and throat represent a serious problem in dental care. The most of natural bacteria are colonized on buccal surfaces, tongue, throat and mucous membrane in inaccessible sites such as gingivitis fissures. In most cases for treatment of dental bacterial diseases antibiotics are frequently used without preliminary sensitivity tests of causative agents. In the process of therapy the sensitivity gradually reduces and a microbe acquires resistance.
In such incidences less sensitive bacteria inhabit an affected area-first mucous membrane, then sub-mucous layer and so the process is going on further. The fact, that undesirable effects of medical remedies, irrational antibiotic therapy contribute the development of candidiasis and candidiasis carriage, is worth mentioning. Great numbers of bacteria are accumulated on the buccal surfaces, more than 10 b/g., only 10b/ml are revealed in saliva, 10-100 present in separate cells of throat epithelium and 100-160b.c/gr –on the surfaces of tongue.
It is proved, that due to poor care various diseases like periodontitis, paradontitis, stomatitis, gingivitis, caries, gingival abscess and also inflammatory catarrhal processes of throat mucosal membrane often develop. In connection with this a significant attention should be paid to evaluation of a role of microbial factors. During the recent years a number of oral cavity diseases are mostly caused by Staph. aureus, Staph. epidermidis, Str. pyogenes, Str.mitis, Str. mutans, Str.sanguinis,, Str, viridans,,Str.pneumonia.. Str.pyogenes is the most common cause of acute pharyngitis (15-30% of cases in children and 5-10% - in adults).Str. mitis group members are regular commensals of the oral cavity. Str. mutans and Str.sobrinus belong to the Str.mutans group. They are commonly isolated species, usually obtained from the oral cavity. Str,.mutans is the primary etiological agent of dental caries, and infection is transmissible. Str. stomatococcus is often found on the surface of tongue. The oral bacteria can invade deeper tissues they may cause abscesses of alveolar bone, lung, brain or the extremities.
It should be remarked, that oral cavity represents a suitable condition for development of fungal flora, among which a key role belongs to candidiasis. It is known, that Candida affects mostly multi-layer flat epithelium of mucous membrane being rich with glycogens. Candida is characterized by tropism to the tissues rich with glycogen, which can be an explanation to such lesions of mouth mucous layer and throat. That’s why mucous layer is affected in 52% of cases, skin-in 0,5% of cases(1,2) Also, high humidity, pH6,2-7,0; temperature at 36-370 and other various factors of mechanical nature contribute development of Candida. Thus, increase of both a number of bacteria and antibiotic resistance activate the issue of phage application for therapeutic- preventive purposes in the infections caused by similar type of microorganisms.
It is to be noted, that phage preparations are successfully used in dental activities. Since some bacteria are associated with Candida, we suggest, that a combined application of some natural bioactive substances and antimicrobial preparations and creation of a new biocomposite for dental purposes will be advisable.
The goal of the present work is to create a new bioactive composite, which will be used in the mixed infections of oral cavity and throat and also included into the composition of lozenges and prophylactic tooth-paste or gel.. The essence of the work is to elaborate a new bioactive composite containing newly-isolated bacteriophages and natural bioactive anti-fungal bacteriocidal substances. Study of activity preservation of both composite components and interaction of newly-constructed cocktail with separate ingredients and also, determination of their quantitative ratio in given composite will allow to create a new, combined anti-inflammatory, therapeutic-preventive composite for its practical use in dental service and in catarrhal inflammations of throat mucosal membrane.
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