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Removal of Free Hemoglobin from Blood Plasma


Development of Electrochemically Controlled Removal of Free Hemoglobin from Blood Plasma by Polarized Electroconductive Affinity Sorbents Containing Onion-Like Carbon Nanoparticles

Tech Area / Field

  • BIO-CGM/Cytology, Genetics and Molecular Biology/Biotechnology
  • BIO-CHM/Biochemistry/Biotechnology
  • BIO-IND/Industrial Biotechnology/Biotechnology
  • CHE-THE/Physical and Theoretical Chemistry/Chemistry
  • MED-DID/Diagnostics & Devices/Medicine
  • MED-DRG/Drug Discovery/Medicine
  • PHY-SSP/Solid State Physics/Physics

3 Approved without Funding

Registration date

Leading Institute
N.V. Sklifosovsky First Aid Research Institute, Russia, Moscow

Supporting institutes

  • State Enterprise Krasnaya Zvezda, Russia, Moscow


  • University of Strathclyde / Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, UK, Glasgow\nVale Inco Limited, Canada, MB, Thompson\nUniversity of Missouri, USA, MO, St Louis

Project summary

The annual demand of blood for transfusion to patients and injured persons is 100–200 ton/year for Moscow and 1,000–2,000 ton/year for Russia as a whole. Besides that, 460 ton/year for Moscow and, respectively, 4,600 ton/year for Russia is required to produce preparations from blood plasma (albumin, immunoglobulin). The world demand is much greater.

The cost of blood is at present 6–8,000 rubles per litre. Blood plasma costs, respectively, 10–15,000 rubles per litre; 10% albumin solution, 40–50,000 rubles per litre.

Blood preservation procedures make wide use of centrifugal separation. In the process, a portion of the erythrocytes can be damaged, so that contamination of plasma by free hemoglobin is possible. To date, there are no efficient methods in the world for removal of free hemoglobin from blood plasma and other biological media. The demand for such methods is rather topical, as the purveyance of blood plasma with trace amounts of free hemoglobin is impossible.

The goal of the project is to solve the problem of removing free hemoglobin from blood and other biological fluids in order to provide the world-quality blood without loss of biological material.

The use of electrochemical methods in combination with nanocarbon sorption materials makes it possible to develop controlled medical technologies, which have no analogs at present. Polarized sorbents containing onion-like carbon nanoparticles are capable of operation in the regime of a given selectivity. This enables the organization of flexible technologies suitable for purification of biological media from free hemoglobin in the regime of controlled affinity sorption.

There are no analogous methods in Russia or in other countries.

The required properties of carbon nanosorbents are achieved by developing a special formulation and the process of mixing the components including activated carbons or porous carbonized materials, onion-like carbon nanoparticles and bonding additives; and by their pressing and heat treatment under certain conditions providing the formation of pores of required size.

The required properties of granules are achieved by developing a special formulation and a multistage process of mixing the granules’ components, their pressing and heat treatment under certain conditions to provide the formation of pores of required size.

The subject matter of this proposal is the development of carbon nanosorbents for medical purposes, with a method for their production, including the process layout for fabrication of cartridges from sintered porous carbon nanomaterials (activated carbons or carbonized materials containing onion-like carbon nanoparticles).

Work will be conducted in the following main stages:

  • selection of the type of coals and charcoals suitable for production of carbon nano-sorbents;
  • production of powders of activated carbons (carbon nanosorbents);
  • study of the formation of onion-like carbon nanoparticles from nanodiamond powders;
  • study of the structure and properties of onion-like carbon nanopowders;
  • development of the method of introducing onion-like carbon nanopowders into carbon nanosorbents produced from coals and charcoals;
  • development of the method of producing polarized carbon nanosorbents;
  • study of polarized carbon nanosorbents;
  • development of a special binding agent conforming to the requirements of production of high quality carbon sorbents;
  • testing formulations and production parameters of carbon sorbents;
  • testing formation regimes of carbon sorbents;
  • optimization of heat treatment regimes;
  • development of a special binding agent to provide for sintering of sorbent blocks at a temperature not higher than 200ºC;
  • fabrication of test specimens;
  • study of the structure of carbon nanosorbents produced;
  • study of the properties of carbon nanosorbents and their tests by end users;
  • development of an electrochemical device for polarization of carbons in the mass exchanger;
  • development of the general process layout for production of medical-purpose carbon nanosorbents.

The project includes numerous investigations, where more than a hundred combinations of carbon nanosorbent compositions will be tested. Small specimens will be mainly experimented with, as scaleup in electrochemistry usually presents no problems. Compositions developed will be studied using larger-size cartridges.

Of great significance in achieving positive results are investigations of the structure of the components, particularly onion-like carbon nanoparticles. The choice of these nanoparticles is explained by a number of reasons:

  1. This is a carbon material, and carbon materials are usually compatible with living tissue.
  2. This is a nanomaterial with the small size of initial particles.
  3. This is an electroconductive material, which is essential for use in electrochemical methods.

It should be noted that nanodiamonds and fullerenes are dielectrics, so their application in developed materials is not possible.

It is known that initial onion-like carbon nanoparticles are about 5 nm in size, but they are combined into agglomerates. Agglomeration can reduce the efficiency of using onion-like carbon nanoparticles. It is for this reason that the project will focus on studies of onion-like carbon nanoparticles and the development of a method for introducing them into carbon nanosorbents, which would enable maximally feasible fragmentation of the agglomerates.

The adsorption activity of polarized carbon nanosorbents with respect to free hemoglobin will be studied.

As result of the implementation of the project, a method for production of medical-purpose carbon nanosorbents and their use in the development of a method for blood and plasma purification by removing free hemoglobin will be developed. Work will be finished with fabrication of pilot samples and test of them in clinical hospital conditions. As a result of the work, a general process layout for production of sintered nanodisperse carbon materials for filtration of blood and plasma will be developed. Electrochemical mass exchangers-adsorbers with disposable one-time cartridges from sintered activated carbons with onion-like carbon nanoparticles will be designed, fabricated and tested. The process of the transformation of nanodiamonds into onion-like carbon nanoparticles will be studied, and a method of fragmentation of nanoparticle agglomerates will be developed

A pilot commercial module for blood and plasma purification with production capacity of no less than 100 litres of blood or plasma per day could be organized based on the results of works on the project.


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