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Electrothermal Technology of Coating


Development of Electrothermal Technology of Coating

Tech Area / Field

  • INS-OTH/Other/Instrumentation

8 Project completed

Registration date

Completion date

Senior Project Manager
Latynin K V

Leading Institute
MIFI, Russia, Moscow

Supporting institutes

  • VNIIEF, Russia, N. Novgorod reg., Sarov


  • High-Energy Frequency Tesla Inc., Canada, ON, Ottawa

Project summary

The goal of the Project is the development of equipment on the basis of an electrothermal launcher to be used for obtaining wear-proof, heat-resistant and other coatings from powder materials on the surface of various objects.

Scientific research performed at MEPhI and VNIIEF, including those in the framework of ISTC Project #470, made it possible to develop a technique of microparticle acceleration by means of the shock-compressed gaseous region in the pulsed flow generated in the electrothermal launcher as well as ways of that region formation. The obtained results can be used for the development of an industrial equipment prototype which would have substantial merits as compared to the analogous devices such as gas-thermal equipment, plasmotrons, detonation guns and HVOF (high velocity oxy fuel)-devices.

Among those merits the following ones should be mentioned: substantially higher velocities of microparticle penetration into the substrate (2-3 times higher than existing ones) that results in a drastic improvement of the coating quality; the possible independent adjustment of the particle velocity, temperature of their heating and realization of a given thermal regime of particle acceleration; a possibility to obtain coatings in media with controlled composition and pressure, including atmospheric medium and that of inert gases; the use of electrical energy, which appears ecologically cleaner and safer than the energy of burning gases; simplicity of adjustment and regulation of operational regimes as well as adaptation to various conditions of coating production.

High velocities of microparticle penetration into the substrate appear to be one of the most important factors that determine the coating quality. At higher velocities of microparticles coatings are more dense, hard and uniform. They have higher adhesion and cohesion and lower introduced material stress. Potentially it becomes possible to obtain coatings with the highest adhesion values (up to 10MPa) and low porosity values (less than 0.1%). At higher microparticle velocities preliminary sandblasting treatment of the substrate can be abandoned and requirements for its thermal processing can be reduced. That widens the range of application of the proposed technology. In addition, higher microparticle velocities make it possible to obtain high quality coatings even at large angles of flow incidence. The temperature of accelerating flows is so high that it is possible to melt practically all powder materials. The equipment has wide capabilities to produce complex coatings. Thus, using various injection positions it is possible to obtain “puff” or combined coatings. As mentioned above, the proposed equipment is able to obtain coatings from small dispersion powders (1 m and less), which are now of great interest. Small dimensions of the spots on the substrate surface (1 2 mm), which can be realized with that equipment, provide conditions for obtaining pointed coatings. The latter are very promising in certain applications. Small dimensions of the equipment under consideration allow us to place its accelerating unit inside robot devices.

The merits of the proposed coating technique and the equipment operational abilities make it possible to achieve coatings with unique properties and to realize promising technologies unobtainable by other techniques.

Works on the Project would include the solution of the following problems: development of the accelerating section and discharge units structures; analysis of the erosion wear of electrode systems in the discharge blocks and choice of the small erosion system; analysis of the ablation wear of the discharge gap ceramic walls; development of the pulsed electric supply system structures on the basis of capacitive store elements and compulsators and determination of their characteristics; performance of the equipment resource tests and determination of its operational parameters; development of some versions of the powder material injector; development of the equipment construction, its adjustment and commissioning; study of the equipment operational regimes, determination of its physical and operational parameters; obtaining test coatings and determination of their parameters; development of the industrial equipment prototype construction.

To minimize the erosion and ablation wear it is supposed to use electrode systems of special shape as well as erosion-proof materials. The accelerating part of the equipment could include either the multidischarge scheme of the discharge unit or the barrel booster part. The pulsed electric supply system is realized on the basis of capacitive store units or a compulsator. The powder material injector is supposed to be constructed according to the scheme of transporting gas production by means of pulsed discharges.

In the process of implementation of Project works the equipment on the basis of an electrothermal launcher for producing coatings from powder materials would be developed and constructed. Tests of its resources would be completed. Wear-proof, heat resistant bioactive and other coatings would be obtained and tested. On the basis of mentioned research an industrial prototype of the equipment would be developed that would allow us to obtain high quality coatings unattainable with any other technologies. Such coatings would find their wide application in the commercial sphere. The Project collaborators are supposed to be prominent experts in the pulsed power field from the USA, Canada, Korea. Collaboration with them implies mutual participation in workshops, conferences and consultations on such problems as the development of pulsed electric supply systems, erosion-proof discharge unit, as well as the analysis of obtained coating parameters.

Scientists and experts of MEPhI and VNIIEF are supposed to participate in Project works. They have unique experience in the field of development of pulsed power systems related to mass destruction weapons. So, the Project corresponds to the goals of ISTC.


1. E.Ya. Shcolnikov, A.V. Chebotarev, A.V. Melnik, Yu.A. Kulikov. «High efficiency electrothermal accelerator» IEEE Transaction on Magnetics, v31, #1, 1995, p.p. 447-451

2. E.Ya. Shcolnikov, I.L. Kolensky, S.P. Maslennikov, A.V. Melnik, N.N. Nechaev, A.V. Chebotarev, S.M. Bakhrakh, S.P. Egorshin, A.N. Tarasova, S.A. Shaverdov.. “Electrothermal acceleration of microparticles”. Proceedings of 6th European Symposium on electromagnetic launch technology. The Hague, 1997, p.p. 261-268.
3. E.Ya. Shcolnikov, S.P. Maslennikov, A.V. Melnik, A.V. Chebotarev. “High velocity flow generation and microparticles acceleration by means of high current pulse discharge.” Digest of technical papers of 11th IEEE International Pulsed Power Conference (PPC-97), Baltimore, Maryland,1997, p.1162-1167.
4. E. Ya. Shcolnikov, M. Yu. Guzeyev, S. P. Maslennikov, A. V. Melnik, A. V. Chebotarev. “Flow dynamics and microparticles acceleration in the electrothermal launcher. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics”, v.35, #1, Jan. 1999, pp.240-244.
5. E.Ya. Shcolnikov, M.Yu. Guzeyev, S.P. Maslennikov, A.V. Melnik, A.V. Chebotarev. “Flow Dynamics in Pulse Electrothermal Launcher with Multigap Scheme of Discharge Unit.” Digest of technical papers. 12th IEEE International Pulsed Power Conference. Monterey, California USA. June 27-30, 1999, pp.688-691.
6. E.Ya.Shcolnikov, M.Y.Guzeyev, S.P.Maslennikov, N.N.Netchaev, A.V.Chebotarev. “Acceleration of Microparticles in Electrothermal Launcher with Multigap Scheme of Discharge Unit. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics”, vol.37, #1, January, 2001, pp.188-193.

7. E. Ya. Shcolnikov, S. P. Maslennikov, N. N. Netchaev, V. N. Nevolin, L. A. Sukhanova. “Electrothermal Technology of Coating.” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol.39, №1, January 2003, pp.314  318.


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