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Explosive Decontamination Means


Ecological Deactivation/Decommissioning of Radioactive Wastes Storage Facilities

Tech Area / Field

  • ENV-RED/Remediation and Decontamination/Environment
  • ENV-RWT/Radioactive Waste Treatment/Environment
  • MAN-MAT/Engineering Materials/Manufacturing Technology
  • MAT-EXP/Explosives/Materials

3 Approved without Funding

Registration date

Leading Institute
NIKIMT (Institute of Assembly Technology), Russia, Moscow

Supporting institutes

  • State Enterprise Krasnaya Zvezda, Russia, Moscow

Project summary

Concrete and granite walls, floors and ceilings of storage facilities for radioactive wastes (RAW) can absorb radioactive nuclides, which have different penetration deep in building or natural structures. Years of exploitation lead to accumulation of nuclides in surface layers; that creates risk for operating personnel's health. In order to prolong a service period and to remove nuclides from surface layers it is necessary to remove a wasted layer from solid surfaces of. RAW storage facilities.

So, the problem ~ D&D activities for the RAW storage facilities seems to be very actual.

D&D of different components and structures have been implemented since late 70th; it was liven up in 1986 after the Chernobyl disaster. A lot of surface deactivation methods were developed, many of them provided a treatment of wasted metal surface with a reagent solution and following removal of substances after reaction. The range of reagents is quite wide and described in scientific-engineering publications.

On the International Scientific Seminar "Risks Analysis for D&D of Nuclear Submarines" in 1997, Dr. William G. Manion classified in his report the known surface deactivation technologies for nuclides-wasted surfaces by methods of application.

Because of chemical inertness of majority of building materials for the RAW storage facilities, their deactivation demands the methods providing destruction and removal of wasted surface layer. The removal of surface layer from concrete or stone surfaces can be realized by mechanical splitting of a surface layer with use of a chisel-similar tool. The chisel-technology ensures unlimited deactivation coefficient, however the labor consumption is too high by very low productivity. According to W.G. Manion's classification, the chisel-technology is called "the Mechanical Stone-Cutter". Other technologies (“Drilling and Splinting”,"Microwave Heating") have a similar labor consumption and productivity with all its other disadvantages.

In recent years a number of prospective methods appeared, which provide application an impact wave (IW) of condensed substances' explosion, for removal of nuclide-wasted layer. Application of liquid explosive substances (ES Kvazar-VV or VVGIMI) is one of effective means for explosive deactivation of RAW storage facilities.

It is necessary to develop D&D background for RAW storage facilities, which should include IW from Kvazar-VV with use of elongated, elongated cumulative or sheet Kvazar-charges for complete removal of wasted surface layer, as well as RAW evacuation and bury in special sites for safety storage.

The developing method's novelty comprises first application of Kvazar-VV liquid binary ecologically pure ES together with explosive splitting and removal of nuclide-wasted layer from concrete or stone surfaces, in order to perform D&D of buildings and structures used for RAW storage. The method's advantages are simplicity, safety, ecological cleanness and cheapness because of:

a) Kvazar-VV or VVGIMI is a liquid ES, to be prepared on site of application from two explosive-safe components; that allows to exclude from the scope of works such operations as industrial manufacture of ES and charges, transport, storage and guarding of ES;

b) VVGIMI has a very small critical diameter (fractions of millimeter); that allows to apply very small-sized charges in contrast to condensed industrial ES; it does not produce any hazardous gases or sprays polluting the environment;
c) VVGIMI is produced from missile fuel products, which are in great volumes demanding utilization;
d) preparation of engineering means for all wasted surfaces beyond a RAW storage facility, decreases significantly the labor consumption and exposure of working personnel;
e) application of special dust-catching and deactivating compositions in form of sprays or film coats allows to prevent release of nuclides outside RAW storage facility and to clean very quickly the atmosphere inside the facility after explosive works performance.


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