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Solder Ceramics and Metals


Development of a Technology to Solder Ceramics and Metals Using Active Solders Not Containing Precious Metal

Tech Area / Field

  • MAT-ALL/High Performance Metals and Alloys/Materials
  • MAT-CER/Ceramics/Materials

3 Approved without Funding

Registration date

Leading Institute
VNIIEF, Russia, N. Novgorod reg., Sarov


  • University of Vienna / Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Austria, Vienna

Project summary

The goal of this Project is to work out a technology to solder ceramics in vacuum with metals using active solders not containing precious metals to produce miniature and large-size structures with the ensured impermeability of the soldered joints.

There are several ways to produce soldered joints of ceramics and metals:

  • glass –alloy brazing (glaze);
  • brazing (soldering) with preliminary metallization of ceramics;
  • brazing (soldering) at the raw metallized layer;
  • high-pressure brazing (soldering) of the metallized ceramics;
  • active brazing.

A widely implemented soldering technique with preliminary metallization of ceramics is a complex and long-cycle process (it takes up to 7 days). The quality of the soldered joints mostly depends on the quality of the metallized layer, the quality of the burning-in process and on the followed-up galvanic nickel-plating (nickel baking) as well as on the process of silver-alloy brazing itself (or brazing with ПСр72 solder as an option (72% of silver, 28% copper)). Scrap rate at implementation of this technique in some types of joints reaches dozens of per cent.

Other brazing (soldering) techniques have also their drawbacks: complexity of the process, low thermal shock resistance, insufficient environmental friendliness related to preparation of the metal paste, limited application as for the brazing of different designs and materials.

Active brazing (soldering) techniques are of most interest:

  • brazing of active metals (titanium, zirconium) with ceramics using ПСр72 solder;
  • brazing with ПСр72 solder with preliminary application of active metal powder paste onto the ceramics;
  • brazing with implementation of active solders containing titanium or zirconium and not containing precious metals.

The first two active brazing techniques have a number of drawbacks from the ones enumerated above. Active solders for the third brazing technique have not found wide implementation in industry because of the complexity of their manufacturing.

As a result of the works performed within this Project there will be worked out an original brazing technology for metals with ceramics on the basis of new solders, and it will not only eliminate the specified drawbacks but will make technological capabilities wider; finally, it will be brought down to only two operations –assembling for brazing and brazing itself.

Preliminary patent and technical research have not revealed any foreign analogous solders or technologies for brazing.

In compliance with the specified goal, on the first stage there will be performed the research to develop a series of new solders for active brazing and to study the available ones.

The task on creation and manufacturing of such solders will be solved at Tsvetmetobrabotka Institute, Moscow. The Institute has all the necessary equipment and technologies, scientific and technical staff, large experience in this area and in the area of international relations.

On the second stage brazing technology for 22XC ceramics (BK94-1) with 29HK alloy (kovar) and 12X18H10T steel using silver-free active solders will be polished. This stage will be completed in RFNC-VNIIEF, which has much experience in the development of different technologies and has technological equipment and highly-qualified scientific and technical staff.

The third stage related to elaboration of complex technical and scientific data on the properties of solders, designs of the soldered joints and their physical and mechanical properties will be completed in RFNC-VNIIEF and Tsvetmetobrabotka Institute. The works on practically all the stages will be performed simultaneously.

The obtained results will let us introduce the worked-out technology into various branches of industry (machine-building, instrument-making industry etc.) and research institutes to solve the tasks of national economy.

The importance and necessity of this Project is in good compliance with the ISTC goals and objectives, and it will let weapon scientists and specialists get reoriented into the civil area.

Cooperation with foreign collaborators is supposed to be in the following activities:

  • participation in the development of the Project proposal;
  • establishment of relations with foreign scientists from the related areas;
  • more efficient and focused R&D work due to the information exchange and consultations;
  • information propagation on the results of the research and development at the international scale;
  • mutual consideration of technical reports;
  • mutual or parallel research;
  • long-time scientific and technical collaboration basing on the experience accumulated during the Project;
  • other forms of collaboration;

The topic area of the Project and its aim at creation of the active brazing technology for ceramics with metals can facilitate establishment of business relations with potential foreign partners and information exchange. There is a potential for mutual activity with the parties interested in the development of more efficient solders and technological processes of active brazing on their basis.

The technical approach is based on the study of the whole set of properties of the worked-out solders, soldered joints and on the research on the brazing technology.

The research will be performed in compliance with the actual standards of the Russian Federation with implementation of both traditional and modern methods of the research on the materials of the solders and soldered joints. Here, 70-80% of the work will involve the creative potential of the specialists from RFNC-VNIIEF and 20-30% of the work will be performed by the specialists of the public corporation Tsvetmetobrabotka Institute, Moscow.


The International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) is an intergovernmental organization connecting scientists from Kazakhstan, Armenia, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Georgia with their peers and research organizations in the EU, Japan, Republic of Korea, Norway and the United States.


ISTC facilitates international science projects and assists the global scientific and business community to source and engage with CIS and Georgian institutes that develop or possess an excellence of scientific know-how.

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