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Human Influenza in Kazakhstan

#K-1691


The Study of Influenza Virus Circulation and the Analysis of Molecular Biological Peculiarities of NewEpidemic Isolates Obtained on the Territory of Kazakhstan

Tech Area / Field

  • BIO-CGM/Cytology, Genetics and Molecular Biology/Biotechnology
  • BIO-MIB/Microbiology/Biotechnology

Status
3 Approved without Funding

Registration date
30.09.2008

Leading Institute
Institute of Microbiology and Virology, Kazakstan, Almaty

Collaborators

  • International Vaccine Institute, Korea, Seoul\nWorld Health Organization / Regional Office for Europe, Denmark, Copenhagen

Project summary

Project’s goal:

To study the occurrence of influenza A viruses in humans in the regions where AIV outbreaks have been recorded taking into account thelevel of the population immunity to influenza virus variants prevailing now and spread in the past for the purpose of preventing the introduction of highly pathogenic avian influenza into the human population.

The world is now expecting a new influenza pandemic, an event, which is considered enevitable. Since the end of 2003 the world has approached a pandemic more than ever after 1968 when the latest of the three influenza pandemics of the previous century took place. There are all the prerequisites for a pandemic to break out, except one: revealing efficient human-to-human transmission of the virus. The year 2005 saw threatening changes in epidemiology of this disease in animals. New human cases are recorded, and the virus has spread geographically to new countries thus increasing the population at risk.

The present project was arranged in connection with avian influenza cases in Kustanay, Pavlodar and Petropavlovsk regions of the Northern Kazakhstan; the disease spread exactly coincided with the routes of migrant birds, which unambiguously confirmed its source and genetic origin. Though no disease cases were recorded in humans, the danger of introduction of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 in the human population still remains high.

The following tasks should be fulfilled to achieve the above goal:

  • To select territories where samples collection will be performed (theoretical development on the basis of epidemiological data on avian influenza virus outbreaks).
  • To organize a sampling network. To establish contacts with medical institutions, regional city Centers for Epidemiological Surveillance (SES) and presectures.
  • To collect biological materials from humans and to detect viral antigens in ELISA, IFA and viral RNA in RT-PCR followed by isolation of viruses on chicken embryos and MDCK cell culture and identification of human influenza A viruses.
  • To study degree of contact with influenza virus variants prevailing now and spread in the past in the human populations as well as probable immunity level in the population, especially with respect to the newly emerging epidemic variants of influenza A viruses.
  • To study the antigenic structure of НA, NA and NP proteins of isolates in hemagglitination and neuraminidase activity inhibition reactions with strain-specific (НA and NA) immune sera and in ELISA with monoclonal (NP) sera to reference strains of human influenza A viruses. To select representative specimens of epidemic and interepidemic isolates of human influenza A virus.
  • To study the biological activity of influenza A viruses isolated on the territory of Kazakhstan.
  • To study molecular genetic and evolutional peculiarities of influenza A viruses isolated on the territory of Kazakhstan

Research results will be as follows:
  1. The epidemic potential of of influenza A virus isolates obtained from people living in the regions where the AIV A/Н5 outbreak was recorded will be evaluated taking into account the level of the population immunity to influenza virus variants prevailing now and spread in the past.
  2. Nucleotide sequences of genomes of influenza A virus isolates obtained from people living in the regions where the AIV A/Н5 outbreak was recorded will be determined.
  3. Phylogenetic relations of the current epidemic isolates with known reference strains of human influenza viruses will be determined.
  4. A collection of viruses and an information database on influenza viruses circulating in Northern Kazakhstan will be created.


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