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Atmospheric Fallouts

#KR-1657


Investigation of Atmospheric Fallouts and Detection of Human-Induced Activity Sources of Pollution for Ecological Safety

Tech Area / Field

  • ENV-APC/Air Pollution and Control/Environment
  • ENV-MIN/Monitoring and Instrumentation/Environment

Status
3 Approved without Funding

Registration date
10.07.2008

Leading Institute
Institute of Physics, Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek

Supporting institutes

  • Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russia, Moscow

Collaborators

  • TerraMentor e.e.i.g., Greece, Athens\nSELOR eeig, The Netherlands, Amsterdam

Project summary

Realization of the cooperative international research and creation of the atmospheric fallouts database on territories of the Russian Federation, the Kyrgyz Republic and adjacent states with the purpose of pollutions localization from the tail disposals, heat power plants toxic gases, aviation fuel, and other sources of the atmosphere pollution and influence of these factors on global climate change.

Technical Approach and Methodology:

The scientists from the Kyrgyz Republic and the Russian Federation will participate in implementation of this three-year project.

The samples of atmospheric fallouts collected and prepared by participating in the project countries and adjacent states (Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and possibly Uzbekistan) will be analyzed within the frameworks of the project for toxic heavy metals, their compounds, and other toxins. The samples will be selected weekly on standard plane-tables which are used by Gidromet agencies.

In certain monitoring locations of the Russian Federation and of the Kyrgyz Republic territories the samples will be collected routinely for investigation of concentrations of matters under study. To determine pollutions behavior (global or local) the samples of atmospheric fallouts will be regularly collected on territories of Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, and, possibly, Uzbekistan.

Basic hydrometric characteristics will be measured and sampling locations coordinates (position) will be determined in-situ when samples collecting.

To obtain a full picture of the fallouts composition, alongside with the universally recognized methods the methods of nuclear radiation spectrometry and emissive spectral analysis, specially adapted to the project tasks, and, if necessary, the activation and other methods will be applied.

All samples will be analyzed in Institute of Physics NASc KR, and a control split of the samples will be sent to analytical laboratories of the Russian Federation, and possibly, to Institutes of Nuclear Physics of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan for validation.

Main factors responsible for comfort climatic conditions on the Earth are a value of solar radiation, atmospheric pressure and heat capacity of the Earth atmosphere, defined by composition and moisture the air (Sorokhtin O.G., Ushakov S.A. Global evolution of the Earth. – M., Publisher MGU. – 1991. – 446 p.). Mean temperature of the Earth’s surface Ts can be chosen as a basic parameter characterizing the averaged global climate of the Earth. For modern conditions Ts = 288 oK +14.8 oC. And a local average annual temperature T(s) of the Earth’s surface S={s} can be taken as a characteristics of local climatic conditions, at that, . Inasmuch as for the planets with the dense atmosphere (pressure p > 0.2 atm.) the basic mechanism of the heat efflux from the surface is a convective mass transference of the air in troposphere, the temperature distribution in it should be adiabatic. According to adiabatic theory of greenhouse effect the mean temperature of troposphere depends on solar constant C, atmospheric pressure p, effective value of the adiabat α index (determined by structure and moisture of troposphere), and albedo of the planet A (it is accepted that A~Ts). This theory was successfully verified by average distribution of temperature in troposphere of the Earth and the Venus (Sorokhtin O.G., Ushakov S.A. Adiabatic theory of the greenhouse effect of atmosphere. – Bulletin of the Moscow University. – V.5. / Geography. – 1996. # 2. – P. 27-37.), that also allows using it for modeling the Earth’s climate evolution.

Within the frameworks of the project a one-dimensional “adiabatic” mathematical model of heat transfer in the Earth’s atmosphere will be constructed, with the help of which the qualitative assessment will be given to contribution in greenhouse effect of aerosols of heavy metals and other pollutants.

The process of vital activity of a man occurs in the environment which is characterized by the value T(s) and many other factors, influencing first of all his physical health. One of these factors is chemical composition of the near-earth atmosphere.

The collected and analyzed during the project implementation fallouts samples will give the insight about temporal and territorial distribution of chemical elements in air medium, will allow localization temporal and spatial intervals when the elements concentration is higher than natural (background) values. So, it will be possible to make a conclusion about a character and a degree of pollutions (global or local, weak or heavy) as well as to study the dynamics of these pollutions.

For interpretation of results of the samples analysis it would be natural applying the probability theory and mathematical statistics machinery. It will allow revealing stable connections in a chaos, in other words, casual data, confirming or refuting either or another statistic hypotheses.

On the basis of measurements data and their processing a database accessible through the web-site will be created for implementation of statistical and graphical analyses.

Expected results:

  1. A network of observation points will be created to monitor the atmospheric fallouts for obtaining representative data.
  2. The temporal series of pollutants levels will be determined in selected observation points, and a spatial-temporal structure of the series will be studied.
  3. A nature of the pollutants (local or global) will be defined and the dynamics of that state will be studied.
  4. In case of the pollutions local nature the most contaminated sites will be characterized, and likely the contamination sources will be identified in territories of participating countries, the pollutants transboundary transport will be estimated.
  5. One-dimensional “adiabatic” mathematical computer model of heat transfer in the Earth’s atmosphere will be built, with the help of which a qualitative assessment will be given to contribution in greenhouse effect of heavy metals and other polluting aerosols.
  6. Final outcome of the project in addition to the model will be creation of international database on the atmosphere contamination by heavy metals and other toxic materials.
  7. Specialists exchange, international meetings, and work on preparation of scientific publications in international journals will serve as a demonstration of international collaboration.

Role of Foreign collaborators:
  1. Participation in workshops arrangement, working out of plans, and relations development with interested institutions for the project purposes.
  2. Advisory help in development and acquisition of hardware for realization of the work under the project, including trips at observation points in territories of participating countries.
  3. The help in creation of the database.
  4. Sharing information in the course of the project implementation, participation in cooperative workshops, International meetings and co-publications.

Objectives:
  1. Large-scale investigation of the atmospheric fallouts in regions of the Russian Federation, the Kyrgyz Republic, and partially, Central Asian Republics of the Former Soviet Union.

1.1. Retrospective overview and critical analysis of activities connected with the atmosphere contamination.
1.2. Selection of observation points.
1.3. Carrying out of work on selection and preparation of samples for analysis.
1.4. Standardization of sampling, samples preparation and analysis.
1.5. Laboratory analytical researches.
1.6. Ranking of objects on a degree of atmospheric fallouts pollution.

2. Detection of the atmosphere pollution possible sources and their contribution in climate change.
3. Construction of one-dimensional “adiabatic” mathematical computer model of heat transfer in the Earth’s atmosphere. Working out of recommendations on control, restriction and prevention of further influence on climate change of detected sources of the atmosphere contamination. Creation of the database on the atmosphere contamination.


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