Explosive Protection Means
Explosive Protection when Fighting Terrorism and in other Areas of People Activity Related to Explosives Handling
Tech Area / Field
3 Approved without Funding
VNIITF, Russia, Chelyabinsk reg., Snezhinsk
- Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory / Energetic Materials Center, USA, CA, Livermore
Project summaryTerrorist acts with explosive devices
Recently, terrorist acts have markedly intensified in the world. More and more often, terrorist acts involve explosive devices of different power and design both homemade and of industrial production. In this connection, need for ensuring civil safety concerned with the explosive protection of industrial and dwelling buildings, vehicles, communications, crowds of people in metro, pedestrian subways, at stadiums, squares and in other public places has essentially increased. Need for means of timely detection and response to the threat with explosive devices prepared for a terrorist act has considerably grown.
Casualty effect of explosive devices
Depending on a specific design, power and quantity of the used explosive, the explosive devices can have extremely high casualty effect on people and surrounding objects. The injurious effects of an explosion are high-speed fragments of different materials, the air shock wave, thermal action of detonation products. The explosion of TNT charge, whose mass is about 1 kg, can cause death and severe injury of tens and hundreds of people in places of people crowding. The example of this is the explosion of the terrorist explosive device in the pedestrian subway at Pushkin square in Moscow on August 8, 2000.
Isolation of an explosive device from the Environment
An explosive device laid for the terrorist act can be activated at any time by an external radio command, an internal timing mechanism or by some other actuation method. Therefore, the device should be isolated from the environment in the shortest possible time after its detection in order to decrease the casualty effect of the possible explosion down to a safe level. For isolating the detected explosive device, one can use different materials, arrangements and devices, which ensure explosive protection in situ, as well as safe bomb evacuation to the place of its dismantling or destruction. Extremely important is the development of protective means, which can completely isolate an explosive device from the environment and can, at most, reduce its casualty effect.
Goal of the work
The goal of this Project is to create the database on materials, compositions and devices most promising for the development of explosive protection means and equipment, and then use this database for the development of the optimal, compact, and mobile protective device, which reduces the casualty effect of a bomb laid fir the terrorist act down to the level safe for people and the environment. This protective device is to have dimensions convenient for several people to hand carry it. It is to completely isolate an explosive device from the environment, trap it and ensure its confinement with the purpose to evacuate it to the site of its dismantlement and destruction.
Application of RFNC-VNIITF experience
Great experience RFNC-VNIITF personnel has in handling explosives and in the research explosion tests, as well as the developed calculation, theoretical and experimental background allow the Institute personnel to be involved into the work related to the development of explosive protection means and equipment for fighting terrorism. The knowledge accumulated both in the area of the casualty effect of explosions, and explosive protection, resources for gas-dynamic, strength and thermal analysis, and conditions available for explosion experiments, as well as pilot production capabilities offer good possibilities to perform investigations aimed at the development of the explosive protection devices at RFNC-VNIITF.
Statement of work
This effort will involve analysis of results from known publications in the area of designing the explosive protection means and equipment and will include the following research.
1. Determining parameters of a typical explosive device. Computations and analysis of data on casualty effects induced by the explosion.
- Materials, dimensions, mass and velocity of fragments;
- Intensity of the air shock wave;
- Fougasse action.
2. Study and analysis of published data on materials, compositions and devices for protection against explosive fragmentation:
- Selection of inpidual materials having a relatively low density but high resistance to piercing of high-velocity metal fragments (ceramics, fiber glass, etc.);
- Determination of the optimal combination of inpidual materials in the design, having the least weight, which ensures maximum protection against fragments.
3. Study and analysis of published data on materials, compositions and devices for protection against the air shock wave and gaseous explosion products:
- Identification of inpidual materials, having relatively low inherent density, which can efficiently absorb energy of the shock wave (polyurethane foam, polystyrene foam, etc.);
- Selection of most light inpidual materials having elevated tensile strength under shock loads (aluminum-, magnesium-, titanium-based alloys, etc.);
- Identification of optimal combination of inpidual materials in the design, having the least weight, which ensures maximum protection against a complex effect of the shock wave and expanding gaseous detonation products.
4. Study and analysis of published data on devices for combined protection against fragments, shock wave and gaseous explosion products.
5. Identification of the optimal design of a light and compact explosive protection device on the basis of performed computations and analytical study.
6. Designing and manufacture of an experimental model of the explosive protection device.
The device will include:
- Relatively low-weight explosive protection cap, several men can hand carry, which will cover a detected explosive device.
- Means to trap and ensure confinement (fixation) of the explosive device inside the explosive protection cap.
- A bottom explosive protection screen, whereto the cap with the explosive device inside will be attached.
- The cap and the screen will form one integral design, which will completely isolate the explosive device from the environment.
7. Experimental verification (tests) of the experimental model of the explosive protection device in the explosion experiment with an actual explosion device:
- Localization of the explosive device in the protection device;
- Blasting of the explosive device inside the protection device;
- Registration of shock-wave intensity, release of fragments and gaseous detonation products;
- Determination of the extent of protection device destruction;
- Determination of protective properties of the device developed on the basis of experimental results.
Scope of work
The scope of work includes:
- Issue of the calculation-analytical report on the casualty effect an explosion has on external objects;
- issue of the review-analytical report on the means of protection against fragments;
- issue of the review-analytical report on the means of protection against the shock wave and gaseous explosion products;
- issue of the review-analytical report on the means of combined protection against fragments, the shock wave and gaseous explosion products;
- issue of the report-substantiation on the optimal combination of protection means against fragments, the shock wave and gaseous explosion products in the explosive protection device;
- issue of the report on the development and the manufacture of the experimental model of the explosive protection device;
- issue of the report on the results of the experimental model testing in explosion experiments;
- issue of the final report on the database containing most promising explosion-proof materials, compositions and explosive protection devices.
Novelty of the work consists in the creation of the database on explosion-proof materials and explosive protection devices and in the designing of the optimal explosive protection device on the basis of state-of-art achievements in the area of explosion casualty effect suppression. The device will meet high technology standards at the most.
Other applications of work results
In addition to counterterrorism, the results of work can also be used in other areas associated with handling explosives and explosive devices (for developing explosive protection screens, confinement cabins, and explosive protection devices):
- at explosives production enterprises;
- at enterprises for dismantlement and utilization of obsolete munitions;
- for the destruction of anti-personnel mines and other munitions, which cannot be evacuated, through their blasting in situ if they are detected in the residential zone;
- in civil engineering and in mining during performing blasting operations;
- in transportation of explosives and explosive devices;
- in storehouses and storages of explosives and explosive devices;
- when performing scientific and research explosive operations with a view to localize the casualty effect of an explosion.
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