Pollution Measurements in Siberia with Mobile Complex
Development of Mobile Measuring Complex Based on the Boat-Laboratory and Conducting of Measurements of Gaseous and Aerosol Pollutants in the Basin of Main Siberian Rivers (Ob, Yenisei, Lena)
Tech Area / Field
- ENV-APC/Air Pollution and Control/Environment
3 Approved without Funding
Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russia, Moscow
- Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry, Russia, Moscow\nSiberian Branch of RAS / Institute of Water and Environmental Problems, Russia, Altay reg., Barnaul\nSiberian Branch of RAS / Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Russia, Novosibirsk reg., Novosibirsk\nLimnological Institute, Russia, Irkutsk reg., Irkutsk
- National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan, Tsukuba\nUniversity of Hawai'i at Manoa, USA, Honolulu\nUniversity of Uppsala / Department of Earth Science / Meteorology (MIUU), Sweden, Uppsala\nThe University of Iowa, USA, IA, Iowa City\nMax-Planck-Institut für Chemie, Germany, Mainz\nFrontier Research System for Global Change, Japan, Yokohama\nUS Department of Commerce / National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration / Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory., USA, CO, Boulder\nUniversiteit Antwerpen, Belgium, Antwerpen\nNational Observatory of Athens, Greece, Athens
Project summaryThe offered Project belongs to fundamental investigations of the atmospheric chemistry and climate. The mail goal of the offered Project is measurement of spatial-temporal distribution of small gas species and aerosol impurities in atmosphere, as well as investigation of their sources and drains on Asian part of Russian territory, where it is necessary to allocate Arctic Region and territories located to north from N 55° parallel. These data are of huge importance for the diagnosis and forecast of global climate changes and influence on the environment, as for a greater part of these territories the similar data are almost absent. At the same time to increase accuracy of climatic and ecological models one need to reduce uncertainties in the data.
Thus, as a result of the offered Project fulfillment, the unique complex data on minor gaseous and aerosol species distribution will be obtained for the huge territory located from N 55° to 65° parallels and from E 65° to 130° meridians. It is of great importance that the part of mentioned territory is located near Arctic region, where climate changes are especially revealed in changes of Arctic ice and Permafrost.
Observational mobile stations seems to be optimal way for receiving complex data. The first measurements of similar type have been carried out on the carriage-laboratory since 1995, when Institute of Atmospheric Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS) in cooperation with Max-Plank-Institute for Chemistry (Germany) and Russian Institute of Railway Transport began to lead measurements of continental distribution of gaseous components on route Moscow-Khabarovsk. Later, within the framework of Project ISTC N1235/99, that research was added by measurements of aerosol and radioactivity parameters. These measurements were carried out using equipment, which was developed in IAP RAS and in the Karpov Institute of Chemical Physics.
As a result of that research the unique data on distribution of gas and aerosol impurities in a boundary layer of atmosphere on the territory in the neighborhood with Trans-Siberian railway were received .
The offered Project develops the project ISTC N1235/99 from the point of view of both methodology and scales of measurements obtained. The creation of measuring complex on the basis of ship-laboratory and realization of measurements will allow to include in research almost all Asian part of Russian territory near the Siberian rivers Ob', Yenisei and Lena. Meridional sections data received will be the very important addition to the latitudinal measurements which have been carried out within the framework of the project ISTC N1235/99.
The analysis of the received data will allow to give the characteristic of photochemical transformation of impurity in an atmosphere of Siberia to make an estimation of oxidizing ability of troposphere and speed of generation of ozone in researched regions, to define(determine) the basic natural and anthropogenous sources of impurity in an atmosphere of Siberia.
Also, by methods of numerical modelling laws of change of concentration of impurity along loops of cities and in zones of influence of separate following objects will be determined: high-voltage electric lines, the large industrial enterprises, automobile and railway roads.
Meridional observations carried out by mobile instruments' carriers will make possible more detailed study of minor gaseous and aerosol species distribution peculiarities as well as the influence of the polar front on the transfer of atmospheric impurities; such a study is necessary for perfection of prognostic atmospheric and climatic models.
Except the participants of the Project 1235/99 mentioned above, participation of institutes of Siberian Branch of RAS which make their research in that region is supposed. These institutes are: Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Institute of Water Ecology Problems and Limnology Institute.
Large-scale meridional transport of arctic air masses, usually accompanied by precipitation, results with essential, if not complete, updating of aerosol composition of atmosphere on the territory of Western Siberia. The subsequent development of meso-scale motions entails its gradual enrichment by particles of regional origin. They are formed for the account of soil dusting, of air bubbles destruction on a surface of rivers, bogs and lakes, of getting plant pollen to the air etc. The essential reason of their occurrence can be antropogeneous activity as well. The preliminary research which have been carried out in IAO of Siberian Branch RAS shows, that size of local particles usually less then size of arctic ones. Therefore gradual updating of the bottom layers of air by these particles can be well controlled by measurements of spectral transparency, dispersion phase functions and degree of polarization. The regional aerosol differs from arctic one by chemical structure also - it includes the great number of particles of organic origin. The influence of the antropogeneous factor can be considerably weakened by the appropriate choice of observation points on significant distance from cities and industrial centers.
Thus, the realization of complex field experiment on aerosol optics, air, water and soil chemical structure study, combining with observation of wind velocity, air humidity and other meteorological parameters will allow to receive high-grade representation about influence of activity of meso-scale air motions on aerosol dynamics between intrusions of arctic air masses.
The Insitutes - participants of the offered Project have carried out in 1999 an expedition "Poima-99", under the initiative of correspondent-member RAS V. V. Zuyev and academician RAS V. E. Zuyev. During that field research, distributions of minor gaseous and aerosol species on middle Ob' region were measured. The equipment of both institutes of Russian Academy of Sciences and Max-Plank-Institute for Chemistry (Germany) were used. Results on troposphere ozone concentration received in that expedition over the river surface in meridional direction shown the higher contents, in comparison with the data obtained on the carriage - laboratory on latitudinal section. The expedition has also shown the presence of the raised contents of iron in water of Ob'.
Thus, the results of the mentioned expedition of 1999 year makes possible to propose to carry out the meridional measurements onboard the ship-laboratory along the Siberian rivers within the frameworks of the offered Project. These measurements, together with latitudinal distribution data obtained by carriage-laboratory, will allow to get the unique information about spatial and temporal distribution of the atmospheric aerosol and minor gaseous species for almost all the Asian Russia territory.
The realization of this task will be carried out by method of river water sampling with their subsequent chemical conservation and analysis in stationary laboratory conditions, based on methodics elaborated in Institute of Water Ecology Problems. Elementary composition of river water and main toxic substances in it will be revealed due to research of that type. One should study to-date state of living beings in rivers to make an estimation of their qualitative and quantitative development, to reveal indicators of organic pollution.
On the basis of the received data the estimation of the trophic status of the rivers will be given and quality of their waters is appreciated. Influence of large industrial centres on river ecosystem through revealing of changes in structure and quantity(amount) of seaweed, the maximum(supreme) water plants and spineless animals will be appreciated. The data on ground adjournment of the investigated rivers that will allow to estimate a condition of the rivers and their basins in the past and the present more full will be received.
For the analysis of flows of atmospheric impurity the data of measurements at stations of Barnaul, Tomsk and of background station of Limnology Institute, which is settled down in territory of astronomical station Mondy (51,6 N, 101,0 E) will be used. Last years this station successfully develops as international station of research of the background characteristics of atmosphere. This station is located on border of Russia and Mongolia, on one of tops Khamar-Daban mountain chain (absolute height is 2005 m.). It is supplied with industrial electricity and consequently has not the sources of antropogeneous emissions to the atmosphere. The nearest industrial centres - Irkutsk, Baikal'sk - are located on distance more than 200 kms, and away from prevailling atmospheric transports to the station side.
Already nowadays at station Mondy the wide complex of experimental researches of chemical structure of atmospheric impurity and atmospheric losses is carried out with use of the most modern equipment and methods of the chemical analysis. Since 1996 automatic measurement of ozone concentration and CO with 10 minute step has been made on the equipment taken from the Center of advanced technologies by Tokyo University (under the leadership of Prof. Akimoto). Determination of dry and damp sedimentation has been carried out since 1998 (with financial support of Japanese environmental agency). Gases HCL/ HNO3, SO2, NH3 as well as aerosol ionic composition are analyzed in selections of dry sedimentation. In sediments, sampled on automatic set-up (manufactured in Japan) ionic composition of atmospheric precipitation are analyzed. Besides, the element analysis of atmospheric aerosol on 40 elements.
The data received in aggregate with development of methods of their analysis on the basis of transport models, including chemical transformation, will ensure better understanding of influence of large territory of Northern Asia on structure of atmosphere and change of climate in Northern hemisphere. The offered Project also corresponds to the programs of activity IGAC (International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Program), in particular, to the Program ACE-Asia 3 (2001-2003 years) The measurement program in the offered Project, created with corresponding to tasks ands goals of the Program ACE-Asia 3, was supported by the Scientific Committee of this Program. In a case of realization of the offered Project during 2001-2004 years, its results will be included into the database on trans-border transfer of impurities over the Asia continent and will be used for the analysis of atmospheric pollution and climate changes.
Received as a result of performance of the offered Project the data will allow to give essentially specified numerical estimations of influence of the major factors determining structure of impurity and radiating balance above territory of Russia, global structure of an atmosphere and a climate of the Earth.
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