Tech Area / Field
- PHY-SSP/Solid State Physics/Physics
3 Approved without Funding
Kurchatov Research Center, Russia, Moscow
- Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA, TN, Oak Ridge\nMitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe, Japan, Kobe\nArgonne National Laboratory (ANL), USA, IL, Argonne\nTecnatom, s.a., Spain, Madrid
Project summaryThe purpose of the project is to carry out fundamental research in the field of radiation solid-state physics (RSSP) and applied research, aimed at safer power generation at nuclear and future fusion power plants.
Having analyzed the role of gamma-ray radiation (as a factor promoting the increase in diffusive mobility of atoms), accompanying neutron radiation in nuclear reactors, the authors found out that the degradation rate in materials of different types simultaneously irradiated with neutrons and gammas-quanta depends on the gamma-flux. They came to the conclusion that Radiation Gamma-Annealing (RGA) exist and partially compensates for neutron induced degradation of material. In 1995, the results of this study earned out with model materials were acknowledged by the Russian Academy of Sciences as some of the most important in the field of Radiation Solid States Physics.
The Technical approach involves:
- theoretical consideration of interaction between gammas-quanta of different energies with atoms and radiation defects of the crystal lattice;
- analysis of the database on radiation stability of materials to identify the contribution from gamma-field;
- performing of nuclear reactor experiments and study of irradiated materials.
In more detail, this method includes the following:
1. Theoretical consideration, which involves developing of model of interaction of gammas-quanta of different energies with atoms and radiation defects of the crystal lattice.
2. Analysis of data from the database on radiation materials research, including the calculated values of gamma-flux, in order to identify the contribution of the letter to the mechanism of radiation defects evolution at the post-dynamic stage of cascade formation.
3. Reactor testing with varied ratio of fast neutrons and gammas-quanta fluxes as well as investigation of irradiated materials to reveal the influence of gamma-ray radiation on radiation stability of the following materials: model materials, NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) structure materials and candidate materials for fusion reactor (ITER).
4. Development of progressive technology of radiation embrittlement reduction by means of changing the ratio of neutron- and gamma-fluxes with the aim of extending the reactor vessels lifetime.
Realization of the project would permit the following:
1. To develop a theoretical foundation for the mechanism using RGA, to compensate for neutron effect on materials.
2. To analyze and revise the data on radiation stability of model and structure materials from the new viewpoint, which involves identifying the contribution from gamma-field. It would permit to systemize this data more accurately.
3. To clarify the mechnaisms of materials degradation in reactor conditions.
4. To improve the procedure of predicting radiation damage in materials influenced by radiation fields with various intensity and radiation composition factor, thus increasing reliability and safety of the operating NPP.
5. To substantiate the concept of investigation and testing of candidate materials for fusion reactor hi fission reactors.
6. To suggest and substantiate the methods of controlling the rate of radiation damage:
- application of RGA to counteract the degradation effect of neutron irradiation;
- suppression of the influence of RGA to promote the formation of radiation defects and to simulate the conditions of materials damage in fusion reactors.
Potential role of foreign collaborators
Participation of foreign colleagues in discussions on the mechanisms of gammas-quanta effect on radiation damage processes would be seminal. Probably, enhanced radiation embrittlement of RPV (Reactor Pressure Vessels) due to the large water gap between the core and the RPV wall (which is characteristic of the Western designed light-water reactors), in addition to the proposed by foreign specialists extra formation of defects induced by high-energy gammas can be caused by suppression of the effect of RGA, which hi its turn is induced by reduction of the flux of intermediate-energy gammas-quanta.
1. V.A.Nikolaenko, V.I.Karpukhin, Atomnaya Energiya, Vol. 79, No. 3, 1995, pp. 194-197.
2. V.A.Nikolaenko, V.G.Gordeev and V.I.Karpukhin, Rad. Eff, Vol. 139, 1996, pp. 173-182
3. V.A.Nikolaenko, V.I.Karpukhin, J. Nucl. Mater., Vols. 233-237 (1996), pp. 1067-1069
4. V.A.Nikolaenko, V.I.Karpukhin, V.G.Gordeev, Atomnaya Energiya, Vol. 77, No. 3, 1994, pp. 186-189.
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