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Pumps for Space Control Systems

#0473


Design and Manufacturing of Loop Heat Pipes and Capillary Pumps for Advanced Thermal Control System of Space Apparatus.

Tech Area / Field

  • SAT-STM/Spacecraft Trajectories and Mechanics/Space, Aircraft and Surface Transportation

Status
8 Project completed

Registration date
31.10.1995

Completion date
27.12.1998

Senior Project Manager
Bunyatov K S

Leading Institute
Ural Branch of RAS / Institute of Thermal Physics, Russia, Sverdlovsk reg., Ekaterinburg

Collaborators

  • Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. / Institut für Technische Thermodynamik Stuttgart, Germany, Stuttgart\nPhillips Laboratory, USA, NM, Albuquerque

Project summary

Creation of highly efficient two-phase heat-transfer devices with a capillary pumping of a working fluid — loop heat pipes and high-lift capillary pumps with an increased length of the active zone for advanced systems of thermal control of space equipment.

By now the main theoretical and technological principles of creation of loop heat pipes that ensure the transfer of heat flows up to several hundreds of watts for a distance up to several metres at different orientations in the gravity field and in a zerogravity state have been elaborated. Working fluids in such devices may be water, acetone, ammonia, freons, propene and a number of a number of other liquids with appropriate physicochemica! properties. In this case no mechanical means of forced pumping are used, which makes it possible to enhance significantly the reliability and resource of such devices. The driving "mechanism" in loop heat pipes is the capillary forces created by capiIlary pumps-evaporators. Such pumps are supplied with special capillary structures with pore sizes from 1 to 5 m and a porosity from 50 to 70%, which make it possible to create pumping pressures up to 45 kPa if ammonia at a working temperature of 20 °C is used as a working fluid. On water this pressure can achieve 120 kPa. Capillary pumps are at the same time efficient evaporating heat exchangers, which provide high heat-transfer coefficients in the zone heat-load supply. They may also be used as the main components of more powerful and extended two-phase heat-transfer systems with a capillary pumping of a working fluid.

Loop heat pipes and capillary pumps may be used in advanced thermal control systems of aerospace equipment, radio electronics, electronics, self-contained systems of solar heat supply, household appliances and other objects of different purpose that require thermal control.

The result of the work is to be the development and fabrication of two loop heat pipes of stainless steel of a power from 100 to 500 W with ammonia and propene as working fluids, and also five capillary pumps from 18 to 24 mm in diameter with an active-zone length of 380 mm supplied with a nickel and a titanium capillary structures. The creation and testing of such devices will make it possible to obtain exhaustive information necessary for the development of more efficient and reliable thermal control systems of space vehicles.


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